1905 - 1925

Expressionism

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Expressionism was a modernist movement which originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. This movement appeared as a painful reaction of the artists to the ugliness of early 20th-century civilization, the First World War and revolutionary movements. A generation traumatized by the events of those times perceived reality in a highly subjective way, through the prism of emotions such as disappointment, anxiety and fear. The principle of expression prevails over the image. The motifs of pain and screams are very common.

Key ideas

– The banality, ugliness and contradictions of modern life gave the Expressionists feelings of irritation, disgust, anxiety and frustration, which they transmitted with the help of angular, twisted lines, rapid and rough strokes, and screaming colour.

– Expressionists made ample use of contrasting colours in order to strengthen the impact on the viewer.

– Though small and boring at first glance, pictures of modern street life became bright and emotional under the brush of expressionists.

– In 1905, German Expressionists created the “Bridge” group, which rebelled against the plausibility of the Impressionists and sought to restore the lost dimensions of spirituality and meaning in art.

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An American artist and theorist, the central figure of the avant-garde of the 60s, the discoverer of the happening - a form of art in which the primary attention is paid to the process of creation. Allan Kaprow appreciated the moment of action in painting, putting it above the result.The fleeting, often quick and spontaneous actions of Kaprow erase the line between art and everyday life and immerse participants in the work, involving them in the creative process and destroying the notorious “fourth wall” between the work and the audience.In his theoretical writings, Allan Kaprow said that after the discoveries of Jackson Pollock and other Abstract Expressionists, painting could no longer exist in its original form. It must go beyond the canvas and move into everyday life.The master called himself “non-artist” and his works “anti-paintings”. “Life is much more interesting than art”, said Kaprow and created events outside galleries and museums: in courtyards, apartments, streets, squares and parking lots. Sometimes his works are even absurd - such as building houses from ice under the scorching California sun; they change the very perception of art and turn everyday life processes into creative acts.The principles of the creation of happening, which Allan Kaprow outlined in his work “How to Make a Happening”, were enthusiastically accepted by many post-war artists who tried to take a fresh look at modern creative methods. Thanks to the discoveries of the American innovator, such styles as installation, performance and conceptual art were further developed.

1927 - 2006

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A Swiss sculptor, painter and graphic artist, one of the largest sculptors of the 20th century, a vivid representative of the avant-garde.Giacometti, who studied the art of painting and sculpture in Geneva and Paris, experimented with cubism and futurism, was interested in primitive sculpture technique. For some time, he worked with a surreal French group and created strange objects testifying to cruelty, interest in eroticism and at the same time the author’s dreaminess and humanism.After he suddenly departed from Surrealism, Giacometti again created more figurative and vital works. The mature master created his most famous works - a series of elongated and fragile figures, similar to skeletons and made not by carving but by modelling in clay or plaster without thorough study and smoothing of the surface of sculptures and figurines. These works are extremely highly valued in the art market, and viewers are always incredibly interested in them.Giacometti wrote articles for catalogues of many exhibitions and periodicals, outlining extraordinary thoughts, and also kept diaries where he introduced memoirs, observations and explanations to his works. They are an important document of the avant-garde era in art and culture.The most highly regarded (literally and figuratively) outstanding classic of world sculpture was so extraordinary that he did not have direct followers, but influenced the entire world of fine art. He was the idol of Salvador Dali, Henry Moore and other famous artists.

1901 - 1966

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An outstanding world-famous Romanian sculptor, who made most of his creative career in France. He is one of the main founding artists of the abstract sculpting style and the brightest representative of the Paris school.Konstantin Brancusi, who was famous in avant-garde art of the 20th century, led the sculpture to revolutionary simplification of forms. This was not a simple exercise in plastic design but a real interpretation of the rhythm of the modern life. At the same time, the master, who worked in stone, bronze and wood, showed the highest technical skill. Through the emphasized formality and the apparent poverty of a shape, he revealed the inner beauty of the materials he used, freeing it from superficial manifestations. The proof that the art of Brancusi was not just empty abstraction but was filled with high content is the extraordinary popularity of his works during the life of the master and now. The pioneer of abstract sculpture was widely known in Europe, America, and also thanks to his admirer and follower I. Noguchi in Japan; but he never forgot his roots. The sculptor received large orders from Romania, including for park memorials.The artist’s legacy is also in demand in the 21st century. Despite the fact that the author frequently copied his sculptures, they are estimated at tens of millions of euros or dollars in the modern art market.Since its opening, the Georges Pompidou Center in Paris has a separate room with sculptures by Constantine Brancusi - the author bequeathed his works to the French people.

1876 - 1957

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A German sculptor, engraver, graphic artist and playwright. The artist that engaged in figurative art is considered a prominent representative of late Expressionism, closely associated with traditional Gothic German Middle Ages.From the 1910s, Barlach’s work gained a great publicist scope. He constantly appealed to the consciousness of mankind, striving to expose the severity and depth of the problems of modernity. Like Expressionism in general, his art is characterized by high spiritual and ethical ideals.Bertolt Brecht, who called Barlach one of the greatest sculptors who have ever worked in the country, said about his works, “Beauty without embellishment. Greatness without moralizing. Harmony without gloss. The power of life without cruelty".In 1930-1931, to the 60th anniversary of the master, large exhibitions were held in German cities, in Essen, Venice, New York, Zurich, Paris. The fact of such widespread recognition did not stop the Nazis from harassing the artist, who became an "internal emigrant". He continued to do things that were hated by the authorities and the fundamentalist public.His plays were banned; his sculptures were removed from public collections and destroyed as "degenerate art". The press wrote, "we hope that all traces of his terrifying works will be removed"; the sculptor was called only "anti-German" and "semi-idiot". However, Barlach, having refused membership in the Academy of Arts, decided not to leave the country, upholding the right to free creation.In the post-war period, Barlach museums were established in both German states in the city of Gustrow (GDR) and Hamburg (Germany). A separate museum building was erected near Gustrow, where about 400 sculptures, about two thousand sketches and manuscripts of the creator are stored. The Ernst Barlach Society still exists.

1870 - 1938

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An outstanding Polish artist, sculptor and reformer of tapestry art. The textile sculptural forms of abakans were named after the artist. Large coarse-grained works were striking in their appearance, reminding the viewer organic repeatedly enlarged structures. The world art community highly appreciated the novelty of technology and plot ideas by Abakanowicz in the first half of the 1960s, having awarded the artist the main awards of the international biennale.The significant freedom that provided Polish artists with the opportunity to travel to western countries contributed to the development of Magdalena’s unique talent. She has been to Paris and Venice, Munich and New York, participated in art events outside the Eastern Bloc and received “injections” of other art, very different in form from the socialist realism adopted in Poland.Abakanowicz always emphasized the metaphorical nature of her works with names, since all her works are the result of thoughts “about the circumstances that form various human conditions”, a reflection of her personal life with her history of fears and suffering.Art critic D. Vrublevskaya determined, “M. Abakanowicz’s art is based on biology. But she is a creator; therefore, she explores a person through a form and uses instinct in her research.” The relentless ingenuity of Abakanowicz is determined by her creative credo, “I do not like principles and rules. These are enemies of fantasy. ”The artist was awarded many prestigious awards; her works adorn cities of Europe, Japan, the USA, Israel, and South Korea - she gave lectures and masterclasses in many of these countries.

1930 - 2017

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The most famous and significant English sculptor of the post-war period, one of the founders of modernist British sculpture. Moore significantly influenced the gradual transformation of British sculpture from provincial to avant-garde, which not only corresponded to European concepts of modern art, but also introduced its themes and means of plastic expression.Moore became world-famous thanks to his sculptures designed for open space, which are installed in many large cities around the world. These works, depicting mainly semi-abstract human figures, impress you with the harmony of their forms and musicality of smooth, winding lines. They reveal the eternal themes of the beauty of nature and the attractiveness of the female body, the spiritual closeness of a man and a woman, the selfless love of a mother for her child - all that makes our world more beautiful.The sculptor preferred to cut his works from a whole piece of wood or stone, and began to use plaster and bronze casting only in the late period of his career. In addition to sculpture, Moore is known as a wonderful draftsman. His most significant works were impressive images of London citizens hiding in subway stations during Nazi bombings.

1898 - 1986

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An outstanding French sculptor, painter, draftsman and teacher. After working for 15 years at the workshop of Auguste Rodin, first as his assistant and student, and then as his colleague, Antoine Bourdelle became an influential figure in the European art community.Bourdelle's Paris Studio Studio was visited by such students as Aristide Mayol, Vera Mukhina, Alberto Giacometti, who became outstanding sculptors, as well as artists Henri Matisse, Vadim Meller and dozens of others.The sculptor’s outstanding talent is evidenced by a large number of orders received by him for monumental buildings of national importance and a considerable number of works performed for capitals and cities around the world.The legacy of the master, who did not object to the repeated replication of his most outstanding works, is represented in museums around the world with his castings of bronze figures and compositions, as well as the copies of his works of later years.The artist became the full holder of awards of the Order of the Legion of Honor of France, was the founder and vice president of the Tuileries Salon in Paris. He created portraits of such prominent people as O. Rodin, G. Efel, and others.The house with his workshop in Paris, in which the sculptor lived and worked from 1884 until the end of his life, became an art museum, where there are many ready-made works, as well as sketches for them, made in terracotta, clay and plaster. The garden adjoins the museum, which also became the place to exhibit sculptures by Antoine Bourdelle. The second garden-museum of the sculptor was opened in Égreville thanks to the efforts of the heirs; 56 works by the master are presented there.

1861 - 1929

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A Belgian artist-innovator, a bright representative of Surrealism. Pictures of Paul Delvaux are inspired by secret desires, subconscious fears and vivid impressions from childhood. The painter’s art is famous, first of all, for its naked women, silent and motionless, like statues, in an atmosphere of mystery and emptiness.Most of Paul Delvaux’s creative career developed during World War II and the occupation of his home country. This was one of the reasons why an anxious mood and restless motives appeared in his paintings; although this was expressed not in a direct way but through an appeal to the psyche of a man and his subconscious.Even though Delvaux never officially belonged to surrealist groups and did not even associate himself with this movement, he was close to many of the surrealists. The artist closely communicated with Rene Magritte, who had a noticeable influence on him, and Andre Breton, the founder of Surrealism.In his work, the artist did not use abstract objects, as his colleagues did. On the contrary, the master’s paintings are striking in their realism and correctness of forms. Paul Delvaux created the stunning atmosphere of mystery in his works using his methods, combining extraordinary images with the symbolism and incomprehensibility of the plot.

1897 - 1994

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An Italian artist, an outstanding representative of the second wave of Futurism in painting, one of the first Surrealists in his country. Enrico Prampolini was an unusually gifted man who showed his talent in many branches of art. His contemporaries knew him as a theater set designer and designer, as well as an architect who created several fundamental works. Together with Gerardo Dottori, the artist worked in the style of aerial painting, creating works based on the feeling of flight, the features of the air perspective and speed.Prampolini was one of the authors of the Manifesto of Mechanical Art, which proclaimed the dominance of machines in the world of the future and the close connection of new technologies with painting. The artist believed that contemporary art should be based on the use of mechanical elements from the world of industry. In his works, he praised the coherence and rhythm inherent in the work of mechanisms.The painter’s art developed in close contact with the avant-garde movements of Europe. Prampolini knew Paris Cubists, and also took an active part in the work of the German Bauhaus movement. Being a supporter of the abstract geometric construction of the composition, which is characteristic of Italian Futurism, Prampolini gradually moved to a complete abstraction, including elements of surrealism.

1894 - 1956

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A Belarusian painter, graphic artist, illustrator and stage designer of Jewish origin, a master of applied and monumental art of the 20th century. Marc Chagall became one of the most internationally recognized creators. When many of his fellow peers conducted ambitious experiments, often leading to abstraction, he sacredly believed in the power of figurative art, which he supported with his work.Despite the avant-garde ideas he perceived, he remained a romantic. Born in Belarus, Chagall worked in Russia and France, where he immediately became a prominent figure at the École de Paris, and later in the United States and the Middle East. Travels confirmed his image of the archetypal "wandering Jew", who believed that art destroys borders and estates.The influence of Marc Chagall is as vast as the number of styles that he assimilated in his art. Never completely agreeing with any movement, he mixed many of the visual elements of cubism, fauvism, symbolism and surrealism into his lyrically emotional aesthetics with the invariable presence of Jewish and Slavic folklore.Chagall, like Picasso, is a vivid example of a modern artist who created many works - paintings (oil, gouache, watercolour), frescoes, etching, stained glass, ceramic products, theater decorations and costumes.

1887 - 1985

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An Italian painter, architect, sculptor and art critic. He worked mostly in Milan and Rome. The work of Mario Sironi overcame several cardinal changes during his long career. The artist made the greatest contribution to Futurism, enriching and supplementing it with his original finds, as well as to metaphysical painting, becoming its bright and original representative. He was also one of the creators of the “Novechento” style that tried to change the diversity of modernist movements with a more rational “return to order”.Mario Sironi was a master of the industrial landscape subtly feeling the rhythm and atmosphere of his era. His paintings are distinguished by twilight mood and dark tones, contrasting sharply with the bright and enthusiastic canvases of Futurists. Using a rather limited palette, thanks to his sense of colour and form Sironi managed to create a unique atmosphere of alienation and emptiness of the modern world.Like many of his colleagues, the artist supported the fascist regime and created murals and mosaics commissioned to the order of the government. After the fall of the Mussolini regime, he experienced a great shock and disappointment, which negatively affected his work, but he continued to actively paint until the end of his days.

1885 - 1961

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Wyndham Lewis, the most famous English modernist, played a prominent role in both painting and literature. He is best known as the founder and the main representative of Vorticism, a specific branch of Futurism in the art that went far enough beyond its borders. Despite conventional methods, the idea of ​​this English avant-garde movement is not to glorify the mechanization of society, but in its detrimental effect. The name of the work that derived from the Italian «vortizto» (whirlwind) is taken from the statement by W. Boccioni, an Italian Futurist, that all creativity comes from a whirlwind of feelings. Through the journals he published, Lewis influenced the development of the pioneering British movement as a whole.He mostly created portraits – he depicted key representatives of the culture of England in the first half of the 20th century, whom he knew personally. In the plot genre, the most powerful is his cycle of works on military subjects: the artist participated in the First World War.

1882 - 1957

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An Italian artist and composer, poet, art theorist, one of the leaders of Futurism. Luigi Russolo was an extremely multi talented person, his talents included painting, music, literature and science.He was one of the most original representatives of Futurism, its founder and theorist. Music works of L. Russolo was approved and respected by great Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Diaghilev, the founder of the famous Parisian ballets. Russolo's famous manifesto entitled “The Art of Noise” became the basis for the emergence of a number of musical trends that appeared many years after the death of their author.The artist’s contemporaries remembered him as a bold experimenter who was not afraid to present his painting and music inventions to society. Together with Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla and other artists, he became the author of the “Technical manifesto of futuristic painting”, which was published in 1910.Russolo suggested introducing sound colours of the industrial world into art: the sounds of cars and trains, the noise of wheels, the sounds of factories and factories, the buzz of a busy crowd. His painting is distinguished by close connection with music and the extraordinary refinement of style and harmonious colour solutions.

1883 - 1947

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An Italian painter and graphic artist, a representative of Futurism and Metaphysical painting. A creatively active artist and painting theorist, Carlo Carra was one of the most famous artists in Italy in the early decades of the 20th century and an influential member of the futuristic movement.The artist’s style changed dramatically several times over his long career. He survived several successive periods: early Neo-impressionism and Symbolism, Futurism, Cubism, metaphysics and neoclassical painting.The artist made the most significant contribution to Futurism. In his paintings, he skillfully combined the original techniques of cubism with dynamism and the bold innovation of futuristic ideology. Carra’s canvas of the futuristic period is filled with incredibly bright and energetic images, chaotic movement and wild emotions.During the war, he met with Giorgio de Chirico, with whom he founded a style known as metaphysical painting. Since then, he painted still lifes and interiors filled with ominous emptiness and mysterious silence. In the late 1920s, the artist completely abandoned the avant-garde art and defended the conservative aesthetics of Novecento.

1881 - 1966

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A Russian avant-garde artist, painter and graphic artist, a stage designer, who worked in Paris for many years. In the history of Russian art, the name of N.S. Goncharova is closely associated with the name of M. Larionov: they worked together for 60 years, first in Russia, then in Paris. Unusually talented creators, collaborating, helped one another to establish their individuality.The artist called the Amazon of the avant-garde, a member of the Jack of Diamonds and Blue Horseman groups, a Futurist and Cubist painter, was a bold innovator in painting, a brilliant decorator that till now impresses art lovers with a rare variety of her great artistic talent.The so-called «Russian style» never existed in professional fine art before Goncharova's «Rooster». Inheriting the traditions of lubok art and using folk ideas about religion, the folklore of Egypt and her favourite Scythia, she, undoubtedly, combined all into a single harmonious style.

1881 - 1962

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A Russian artist, one of the "Amazons" of the avant-garde in Russia. Udaltsova devoted most of her career to easel painting; in the late period of her work, she was engaged in graphics. The artist was an active member and exhibitor of the “Jack of Diamonds”, “World of Art”, “Supremus”, “Moscow Painters”, and “13”.Having successively passed through the stages of Cubism, Cubo-futurism and Suprematism that logically followed Constructive art, the artist moved away from the avant-garde, since she preferred the aesthetics of figurative painting.As a teacher, she developed the innovative Object in Space course for free art workshops and the Institute of Art Culture, where she began working as an assistant to Malevich. The artist devoted more than ten years to teaching - before being accused of formalism and dismissed.The art of Udaltsova, an artist of the era, is distinguished by harmony, the integrity of compositions, and boldness of experiments. Her paintings, which have undeniable artistic and collection value, are in the largest museums in Russia and private collections.

1886 - 1961

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An Uzbek artist of Russian origin, one of the main founders of contemporary art in Central Asia, the organizer of several art associations of Uzbekistan, his motherland, where he worked fruitfully. The phenomenon of the Russian and Asian master lies in the fact that his best works are important not only for the formation of the Turkestan and Uzbek painting school but also for the history of art in general.The artist's legacy took a special place in the overall development of Central Asian art of the 20th century since it had its origins in the art of the East and the West. Volkov actively used traditional national motifs of arts and crafts and achieved monumentalism in creating images of ordinary workers, not losing touch with the cubist painting manner.Despite getting the title of People’s Artist in 1946, Alexander Volkov was accused of formalism in the same year; he was forbidden from exhibiting his paintings and teaching at the Tashkent Art College, where he had worked for almost 20 years.

1886 - 1957

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A Belgian painter and draftsman, lithographer and illustrator.Frits van den Berghe was one of the most interesting Expressionist artists of the first half of the twentieth century and a prominent Surrealist. Starting his career under the influence of Symbolist artists and Lumists grouped in Laethem-Saint-Martin, he wrote a manifesto together with his friend, artist Gustave De Smet, who opposed Impressionism. As a member of the second wave of Laethem-Saint-Martin school, Berghe followed the latest trends in the visual arts of his country.The time of the First World War, a period of existential doubts when the artist lived in the Netherlands, was marked by his fascination with Cubist painting by French artist Henri Le Focognier, as well as an interest in Futurism and German Expressionism.At the end of the 1920s, having visited an exhibition, where, in particular, paintings of Ernst and Miro were exhibited, the artist moved away from other styles and devoted his art to attempts to overcome the barriers between real and irrational phenomena, life and death. Berge revealed his new surrealistic concept, in particular, in a theme that was original for this style - floral still lifes.Although Berghe's paintings often resemble works of Ernst and Ensor; his creations are the original Flemish version of Surrealism, with its great picturesqueness and expression. Berghe's works (the list of works, compiled in 1966, consists of 430 items) are presented in most Belgian museums and galleries in Europe.

1883 - 1939

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A Romanian painter and sculptor of Jewish origin, the main representative of the vanguard of this country in the first half of the 20th century and during the post-war period. The artist made a significant part of his creative career in France. Although Victor Brauner, after his early post-impressionist and expressionist experiences, contributed to every avant-garde movement, much of his work fits into the concept of Surrealism.Active in the cultural life of his country, the artist tried to develop avant-garde movements - he founded the magazine “75 HP” in Bucharest, wrote the “Manifesto of Picto-Poetry,” and organized exhibitions of Dadaists and Surrealists. However, the threat of falling into the dungeons of the Nazis forced the artist to settle in France.Brauner was an active and influential member of the Surrealist association headed by Andre Breton; however, according to art expert, his art stood apart due to the artist’s unbridled imagination and, most importantly, his serious passion for esoteric ideas and the authentic art of different nationalities. This style made the artist original, especially after he lost his eye – the same one, which he depicted as knocked out in his self-portrait seven years before it happened in real.Victor Brauner was a participant in major surrealist exhibitions; in 1966 (in the year of his death), he was chosen to represent France at the Venice Biennale. He willed to make the inscription, "Painting is life, real life, my life" on the grave plate of the Montmartre cemetery.

1903 - 1966

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An innovative Czech artist, photographer, graphic artist and theater decorator, poet and art theorist, the brightest figure of European Surrealism of the 20th century. Jindrich Styrsky is also considered a representative of the Paris school of painting, since he lived and worked in France for a considerable time.The student of the Prague Academy of Arts was a part of Czech artistic bohemia and national avant-garde associations during its development between the two world wars - first in the Devestil group, then in the Manes group, and later in the surrealist community, one of the founders of which J. Styrsky became in 1934. In addition, the artist stood at the origins of the emergence of avant-garde photographic art and new scenography in Prague - he ran the Free Theater of the Czech capital.In the 1930s, Styrsky was the editor of the private magazine “The Erotic Revue” with illustrations from many famous Czech artists. The artist supplemented each issue with his collages. Among the most important surrealistic works is “Emily Comes to Me in a Dream”, which was published accompanied by erotic photomontages by the author and psychoanalytic interpretation of B. Brook. It greatly accelerated the overcoming of taboos and censorship of the bourgeois culture of that time.Jindrich Styrsky is a very peculiar, and, therefore, is not just a readable artist of Czech interwar art. His works are approved by modern European avant-garde classics and are presented in the most visited museums and galleries of the Czech Republic.

1899 - 1942

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An outstanding Hungarian painter and graphic artist, publicist and art theorist. Janos Kmetti was the first Cubist in his country and an influential teacher that educated a whole generation of young artists. Studying at the world-famous Julian Academy in Paris, he adopted the most advanced artistic traditions of Europe and enriched the art of Hungary with new avant-garde movements and painting methods. The career of the artist is tightly connected with the literary and artistic association Tett (Action), headed by Lajos Kassák. Together with a few associates, he was one of the founders of the New Society of Artists and its vice chairman in 1924. Kmetty also took an active part in the life of the art colony of Nagybánya and Szentendre and showed his works at collective exhibitions of Hungarian avant-garde artists both at home and abroad. In 1949, the artist was awarded the National Kossuth Prize - the honorary state award of Hungary; his autobiographical and theoretical works are important sources of information for art historians.

1889 - 1975

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A German representative of avant-garde, a prominent artist, sculptor, master of monumental painting, as well as a choreographer, theater designer and art theorist. For about 10 years he worked at the famous Bauhaus school of art and industry (Bauhaus, Weimar), developing the training course “Der Mensch” (Man), which was based on the synthesis of the techniques of several artistic disciplines and different styles. Oscar Schlemmer made a significant contribution to the art of scenography, creating design and choreography for several operas and ballets. The artist’s paintings were included in the list of “degenerative”; he was forbidden to paint and work as a teacher at art schools.

1888 - 1943

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A Russian painter and graphic artist, one of the first students of Pavel Filonov and a talented follower of the method of analytical art. Pavel Kondratiev was a member of a circle of young artists, musicians and writers who collaborated with Isaiah Braudo, Maria Yudina, and Tatyana Glebova. He was a close friend of Alice Poret and for some time lived in her house, where a creative atmosphere reigned and meetings of people of art took place. The artist also became a regular character of several verses of famous poet Daniil Kharms and maintained friendly relations with him.The artist was famous not only for his numerous paintings and graphic works but also as an art theorist and a talented teacher. In the post-war period, a kind of “Kondratyev's circle” supporting his creative ideas formed around him. The painter collaborated with Vladimir Sterligov and together with him used the so-called "surplus element" in painting - a curved line that formed the basis of the famous "cup-dome" system.Kondratiev’s work is a kind of synthesis of several areas of the Russian avant-garde. He possessed a special talent to feel the pulse of his era and to combine seemingly incompatible styles and trends in his works. The works of Pavel Kondratiev are a unique fusion of scientific theories and the deep spirituality inherent in the real Artist.

1902 - 1985

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A Czech artist, a painter, lithographer, graphic artist, book illustration master. Maria Cherminova, the brightest and most significant representative of poeticism and surrealism in the Czech Republic, took the pseudonym Toyen at an early age. Its origins can be interpreted as from the French “Citoyen” - a citizen, and from the Czech phrase, meaning, “this is he”. In both cases, the new name did not give her gender identity. Maria, who tried to break down stereotypes, became a cult figure both in the Czech Republic and in Paris, where she was supported, in particular, by Andre Breton, a leading figure of Surrealism.Toyen was an original and self-sufficient creator. She perceived Surrealism as a driving force of imagination, as well as of the social and political progress. The artist became one of the organisers of the Surrealistic community in Prague. Many of her paintings from the second half of the 1930s also had strong political and anti-war meaning.Hostile to bourgeois conformism, Toyen challenged values ​​based on totalitarianism. The artist left Prague after the Nazi occupation considering the communist regime imposed on the country unacceptable for the creator.In Paris, she participated in the activities of the surrealist group of A. Breton. Although the life and work of Toyen made a great contribution to the development of feminist art, she herself never entered into discussions, did not speak openly about feminism or about her sexual orientation. Nevertheless, experts consider her a pioneer of free female art.

1902 - 1980

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An outstanding Spanish artist who worked in France for a long time and became a representative of the Paris school of painting. In contrast to her more famous Cubist compatriots Pablo Picasso and Juan Gris, Maria Gutierrez Blanchard, during her lifetime, mostly influenced the artistic renewal of Spanish fine art in the early twentieth century, as she worked at home, participated in national shows and worked as a teacher. The artist is considered a key figure of the Spanish avant-garde; her paintings are a valuable part of the collections of national museums and expositions in Europe.

1881 - 1932

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A German artist, designer, writer and theorist of art, a talented teacher who worked in America for a long time. The name of Josef Alberts is inextricably connected with the Bauhaus Higher Art School in Weimar, which was known for its avant-garde orientation. A former student of this institution, Albers worked there as a teacher, created a new art glass studio, and later became the deputy director of the school.In the USA, where the artist emigrated after the Bauhaus was disbanded by the Nazi authorities, he continued his teaching activities and played an important role in spreading the aesthetics of constructivism, cubism and abstract art among American artists. His work served as a kind of bridge between European avant-garde trends and the new modern art of America.Albers was best known for his series of works “Homage to the Square”, which includes geometric abstract paintings and lithographs that are distinguished by exceptionally subtle chromatic harmony. Almost all the paintings in the series consist of several squares that are inside each other and painted in muted harmonious colours. Creating his work, the artist carefully thought out every detail, the most delicate shades of colour and the effect of the use of certain combinations.In 1963, the artist developed the theory of colour pigments, which he outlined in his book “Interaction of Colour”.

1888 - 1976

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A painter, graphic artist, illustrator, theater designer and the creator of the school of primitive art in the village of Hlebine. Together with his associates, Krsto Hegedusic founded an independent artistic group called Earth in 1929. This group fought for social justice and equality in society, for which it was persecuted by the state. The artist often visited the village of Hlebine, where he spent his childhood; in 1930, he began to teach painting to talented local peasants Ivan Generalich and Franjo Mraz. This was the beginning of the famous Hlebine school of naive art, which glorified the work of Croatian primitive artists around the whole world.

1901 - 1975

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A Czech artist, graphic illustrator, stage designer and writer. Jan Zrzavy was one of the leading representatives of the 20th-century national art avant-garde, one of the founders of the creative association of artists “Sursum”, a member of the Czech Artists Association “Manes” and the Union of Graphic Artists “Gollar”. In 1937, the Nazis declared the master’s works “degenerative art”. In 1965, he was awarded the title People's Artist of Czechoslovakia. In the gallery of Jan Zrzavy in Telci, works that he bequeathed to his people are exhibited.

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A Czech painter, graphic artist, illustrator, who became one of the most striking, original and significant representatives of early European Surrealism, and later, in the period after the Second World War, was a master of abstract landscape painting.Josef Sima is equally referred to the Paris School of Surrealism, since he worked in France long time (around 50 years). At the same time, the artist always kept in touch with the Czech artistic community and was a member of art groups in his homeland.After receiving a special and versatile education at the Prague High Technical School and the Academy of Fine Arts of the Czech capital, J.Sima became one of the founders of the Czech art group «Devestil»; after moving to Paris he participated in the activity of the Surrealist group «Grand Jeu» and became a co-founder and designer of a magazine with the same name.The artist entered the history of the fine art as a talented illustrator of frequently reprinted collections of Czech and French poets, whom he kept in touch with.Josef Sima became an important figure in modern European art, was awarded the title of the Officer of the Legion of Honor. The largest collection of his paintings is at the Paris Georges Pompidou Center and at the gallery of the Szech city of Brno. The artist's works are highly valued at art auctions in Europe.

1891 - 1971

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The French artist of Polish and Jewish origin was one of the most mysterious and mystical artists of the twentieth century, whose paintings are extremely ambiguous and are popular in the international art community. Balthus was one of those painters who cannot be clearly catalogued. He deliberately isolated himself from all the artistic trends that had succeeded in his time, in order, as he admitted, to achieve timeless realism.Baltus (Count Baltazar Klossowski) is known for his erotically charged images of teenage girls living in the world of their imagination and images. Therefore, his paintings are more reminiscent of magical realism with its fantastic world than surrealism. It is hard to say that the master’s painting was influenced by the prevailing fashion to return to realism - he initially used the techniques of the art of the Old Masters in order to create his own universe. His not always harmless and characteristic bourgeois interiors are just the conditions for depicting an ambiguous world populated by young people at the height of puberty, in which adults are not allowed, but can pervertedly intrude, as described in the scandalous work “Guitar Lesson”, which the New York MOMA first purchased, and soon got rid of. The artist actively resisted any attempts to create his biographical profile - in a telegram sent to the Tate Gallery, where a retrospective of his works was being prepared, he wrote in response to a request: “Balthus is an artist about whom nothing is known. Now let's see his work”.

1908 - 2001

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Oscar Agustín Alejandro Schulz Solari (Xul Solar) was an Argentine artist, sculptor, writer and musician. Oscar Augustin Alejandro Schulz Solari, better known as Xul Solar, played a significant role in the development of Argentina's avant-garde art. He organized many art exhibitions, was friendly with Argentinean writers and was a member of the Florida group, the members of which followed cutting-edge trends in painting and literature.

1887 - 1963

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A Spanish surrealist artist and sculptor, whom art experts refer to very significant and undeservedly little-known painters of the 20th century. A fellow student of Salvador Dali, a member of the art group Logicophobiste (Barcelona) had a unique style - certainly her own view on the moral aspects and mechanics of life. Her works are full of subtle wit and mystery; the theme of her paintings is motivated by the studies of antiquity and literary sources, as well as by physics and mathematics, engineering and biology in combination with psychoanalysis.Fleeing from the Franco regime, feminist and anarchist Varo, who had republican contacts, moved to Paris, but during the times of the Second World War immigrated to Mexico. The artist’s unique style combines fragments of the subconscious, mystical principle and a deep understanding of the human soul. It takes its roots in the atmosphere of the Middle Ages, the art of Jheronimus Bosch, scientific theories and esoteric literature. Varo created her main works in the second half of her life, and gained worldwide fame after her death.The artist’s paintings are allegorical and filled with deep meaning. They make the viewer think about the nature of the Universe and the secrets of existence hidden in simple things. The incredible world of Remedios Varo attracts you with its lyricism, emphasized femininity, and paradoxes of reality, which the artist tirelessly created in each of her paintings.The magic and mysticism of the works of Remedios Varo have much in common with the works of her close friend, Leonora Carrington, who, like Varo, emigrated from Europe that suffered from wars to relatively calm Mexico. Together, the women organized a circle of Surrealists, whose work also contained the influence of local culture, in particular the “muralism”, which was a mixture of avant-garde movements with the art of South American Indians.

1908 - 1963

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A Georgian artist, graphic artist and master of scenography, as well as an art historian, inventor and teacher. David Kakabadze was an innovator not only in the field of fine arts but also in cinematography, who patented a film apparatus for volumetric shooting. His work is characterized by love for various European modern trends and by both a commitment to national themes and traditions and a distinctive interpretation of avant-garde art movements of the 20th century. The painter left a rich artistic legacy. The largest collection of his paintings belongs to the national museums and galleries of Georgia.

1889 - 1952

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A Swedish artist and writer, one of the first modernists in his country. Gösta Adrian-Nilsson, who signed his paintings with the acronym GAN, was a comprehensively gifted person. He painted in various avant-garde styles, was an active member of the German progressive group Der Sturm (Storm, Berlin), created talented illustrations for the works of his contemporaries, and also wrote his own poems and fairy tales for children. A great admirer of Oscar Wilde in his youth, Adrian-Nilsson adored the decadent movement of the late 19th century, but at the beginning of the next century joined German Expressionists, Italian Futurists, and later French Cubists, making a considerable contribution to the spread of these art movements in his homeland.

1884 - 1965

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An English artist, one of the prominent figures of British avant-garde painting. A student of the famous Slade School, David Bomberg was one of the so-called “Whitechapel Boys”, artists from East London, many of who made important contributions to the visual arts of England. He was a member of the “London Group”, an association of artists of various modernist art movements. Bomberg exhibited his paintings at the New England Art Club and was a talented teacher, whose students were famous artists. The First World War, in which he was directly involved, had a profound effect on the artist's work, fundamentally changing his attitude to art. Despite the fact that the works of David Bomberg are considered the most vivid examples of the English avant-garde movement of Vorticism, he did not consider himself to be a representative this movement, always being independent in his creative style.

1890 - 1957

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A Belgian Symbolist painter, graphic artist, a vivid representative of the avant-garde art of Belgium.The parents of the future master kept a souvenir shop. Therefore, the artist's childhood passed among various ancient items, masks and statuettes. This left a big imprint on his work.He is known for his satirical canvases depicting the shortcomings of the society and human vices. The creation of the society of artists "Les XX", in which he was directly involved, contributed to the formation of many young talents. The outstanding artist was elevated to the rank of a national hero and was awarded the baronial title in his motherland. James Ensor is the most famous national painter of Belgium of the beginning of the twentieth century, who gained worldwide recognition.

1860 - 1949

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Mykola Grygorovych Burachek was one of a few of the most consistent and prominent representatives of Impressionism established in Ukrainian painting at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Among other fields of work of the master, there are scenography, acting, pedagogical activity (he was a professor of painting from 1927), the history of art (investigations, writing monographs and articles on arts). Thanks to Burachek's monograph on Taras Shevchenko, many recognized him as an artist. As a public figure, he was one of the founders and president of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts, as well as an active member of the Union of Ukrainian Artists and an exhibitor of the Association of Artists of Ukraine. In 1936, he was awarded the title of the Merited Artist of the Ukrainian SSR; in 1941, he was awarded the title of the Merited Art Worker.

1871 - 1942

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A Ukrainian avant-garde artist, painter and designer, an active and prominent participant in various latest art movements and groups of the 1910-1920s of the 20th century. He is often referred to as “Ukrainian Picasso” in art history. He was the author and designer of such innovative projects at that time as book and propaganda vans, prefabricated kiosks and advertising stands. He worked productively in industrial graphics, developing design for packaging, factory and brand names and so on. Being engaged in the processing of fonts, he created new original styles. He wrote many easel paintings in the genres of landscape and portrait, and also painted covers for avant-garde magazines and books. Yermylov can be called an associate member of the activities of El Lissitzky and Alexander Rodchenko; he was a friend of Vladimir Mayakovsky, Velemir Khlebnikov and Vasily Kamensky. The post-revolutionary development of art in Kharkov is often called the “Yermylov period” - he is deservedly considered the leader of the Ukrainian Constructivist school and a key figure in the country's avant-garde. The master’s works are, in addition to Ukrainian and Russian major museums of modern art, in galleries and museums in the USA, Germany, France, and are in demand at international auctions. In Kharkov, in 2012, the first center of contemporary art was opened, named "Yermylov Center" after the innovative artist.

1894 - 1968

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A Russian artist, graphic artist, designer, stage designer, a major avant-garde master, whose short creative career evolved in the revolutionary era. Lyubov Popova participated in the practical embodiment of the three most important styles - cubism, suprematism and constructivism, wrote programs for students. In 2009, the Tate Gallery in London reconstructed the exhibition “5 x 5 = 25” (Moscow, 1921), organized by the artist along with like-minded people, as the most important for understanding the development of the Russian avant-garde. In 2012, one of the craters of Mercury was named in honor of Popova.

1889 - 1924

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A Ukrainian artist and graphic artist, designer and set designer, who worked for a considerable time in Moscow. V. Tatlin was the founder of the Art Constructivism and the largest representative of the innovative movement in the art of the 20th century. The symbol of this art movement is the “Tatlin’s Tower”, developed by the innovator in 1919.

1885 - 1953

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A prominent Ukrainian avant-garde painter and graphic artist, outstanding theater artist, master of book illustration. The time of studies and the first ten years of Petrytsky's creative career coincided with the end of the era of creative freedom, which did not last long after the revolution. The artist managed to absorb this freedom and work in several avant-garde styles. The work of Petrytsky was multifaceted: he worked, combining European modernism, Ukrainian and Russian cubofuturism and Moscow constructivism with the wealth of Ukrainian folk culture, as an easel painter, an artist-decorator of the theater, an illustrator and poster artist. For the artist, who turned out to be a creator of numerous portraits of the «enemies of the people» (for example, L. Kurbas and M. Semenko who were shot), it was vital to “overcome” the avant-garde artist inside himself. Having successful and already considerable experience in the theater by the mid-1930s and showing loyalty to the authorities, Petrytsky managed to make his career as a set designer and worked as an artist at the best theaters in Moscow, Kyiv and Kharkiv. His merits were marked by the highest state prizes and awards. He was an honoured art worker of Ukraine; in 1944, he became the People's Artist of the USSR. The importance of the art of Anatol Petrytsky is evidenced by international exhibitions - such as “Crossroads: the Vanguard in Ukraine” (2006, Chicago). More than 600 theatrical works by Anatol Petrytsky belong to the collections of the Museums of Theater, Music and Cinema of Kyiv and Moscow. Some preserved easel works are exhibited at the National Art Museum of Ukraine. One street in Kyiv was named in honour of the artist.

1895 - 1964

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A Ukrainian painter and graphic artist, art historian and critic, art theorist and memoirist, who lived and worked in France for a long time.He was one of 10 children of the director of a local bank. At the insistence of his mother, he studied at the Chernigov seminary, where he met writer M. Kotsyubinsky, with whom he kept in touch for a long time.One of well-known avant-garde artists, A. Gritchenko was an active member of the Paris group of Ukrainian artists, maintained constant contacts with AIUA in Lviv (Association of Independent Ukrainian Artists). A participant and, since 1931, a member of the Paris Salons, whose works are represented, in addition to France and Ukraine, at the national museums of modern art of Copenhagen, Brussels, Madrid, Oslo, Boston, Philadelphia, as well as at the State Russian Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery (Russia). Of particular value are the theoretical studies of A.V. Gritchenko in the field of art and books of memories.

1883 - 1977

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A German painter, graphic artist and sculptor, a representative and theorist of the first in Germany association of expressionist "Bridge" ("Die Brücke", Dresden-Berlin), a participant in the "New Secession".639 works of the artist were removed from the galleries and museums of Germany being ranked as “degenerative art”. 25 of them were included in the exhibition of “degenerates”; hundreds of works were destroyed by the Nazis. The E. Kirchner Museum was opened in 1992 near Davos, where the artist lived for over 20 years; there is a collection of more than 1,400 paintings by the famous Expressionist.

1880 - 1938

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An Austrian artist, illustrator and engraver. Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin worked in his own artistic style, which became the forerunner of Expressionism and Surrealism in the visual art of the twentieth century.Born into a rich family. He studied at the gymnasium in Salzburg. As a child, Alfred had to endure several tragic events, including the death of his mother, at whose grave he wanted to commit suicide at the age of 16. The relationship with the father of the artist was always difficult, but despite this, he financed his son's trip to Munich, where he studied visual arts.Kubin took part in the creation of the “New Association of Artists of Munich”, was a member of the Munich group “Blue Horseman” and repeatedly participated in Expressionist exhibitions in Germany. The artist created a large number of book illustrations, made in a special fantastic and grotesque manner.In addition to art, Alfred Kubin showed himself as a talented writer. He is the author of the science fiction novel The Other Side and a number of mystical stories included in the book “Der Guckkasten”. The original style of the artist influenced many German Expressionists, such as Paul Klee, Georg Grosz and others.

1877 - 1959

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A German artist and innovator, graphic artist, engraver and sculptor, co-founder of the first German Expressionist association "Die Brücke" ("Most", Dresden-Berlin).While still in high school, he became friends with future artist Karl Schmidt and, together with the like-minded students, organized the community Vulcan. This community conducted discussions on the theory of art and on the works of their favorite authors (Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, etc.)The very name of Die Brucke clearly indicated the desire of artists to create a bridge between the past and present art. However, they also declared the creation of new ways of artistic expression. Thus, borrowing something from the old masters of the German Renaissance (Durer, Grunewald, Cranach the Elder, etc.), taking something from Symbolism, Art Nouveau and especially from Fauvism, while relying on primitive art, Erich Heckel and his colleagues promoted the whole history of European (and world) fine arts to the synthesis of very different styles.The art of "Bridge" and E. Heckel revived the traditions of late German Gothics - in particular, woodcut - to a very large extent. The movement contributed to the process, which made engraving a powerful means of self-expression of many masters of the 20th century.The work of E. Heckel in 1937 was referred to "degenerative", almost 730 works were confiscated from German galleries and museums; in 1944, bombs destroyed his studio in Berlin. Works of the master are in most major museums in Germany, in galleries of the United States and other countries; a large collection of Heckel etchings (over 40) is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

1883 - 1970

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An English Expressionist artist, portraitist, one of the most popular and expensive artists of the mid-twentieth century.He belonged to an ancient but ruined family, and the artist was named after his famous ancestor, English philosopher and scholar Francis Bacon. Due to poor health and the First World War, the boy did not receive systematic education and did not study painting professionally. The artist's father was a strict and despotic person, as a result, at the age of 17, Francis left his parents' home because of disagreements with him.Francis Bacon was a controversial and mysterious painter, whose work received sincere admiration of some people, while a clear rejection and even disgust of others. The artist's paintings depicting distorted human bodies, shapeless faces and the parts of various animals, not only convey the author's personal inner world, but also reflect the features of that time and the lifestyle of the society in which he lived. The bold and shocking works of Bacon are very popular, received many prestigious awards and are exhibited in the most famous galleries of England, the USA, Germany and Russia. Unconventional work of the artist has a large number of followers around the world.

1909 - 1992

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A Russian artist, master of domestic genre and landscape, member of the Association of the Wanderers, one of the founders of the Union of Russian Artists and a talented teacher.The central place among the narrative paintings was the leitmotif of the young peasant woman (the so-called “Arkhipov peasant women in red”), as well as landscapes depicting the expanses of the central Russian zone and the north.

1862 - 1930

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Jens Ferdinand Willumsen was a Danish Symbolist artist, most of whose career was in France.He was born into the family of an entrepreneur who lived and worked in Copenhagen.Jens Willumsen was close to the creative school of Pont-Aven, due to his acquaintance with Paul Gauguin and collaborated with the artists of the Nabi group, taking part in collective exhibitions. He was one of the organizers of the "Free Exhibition" in Copenhagen, which united avant-garde artists of Denmark and was the architect of the exhibition pavilion of the group. Willumsen worked as a painter, graphic artist, engraver, ceramist, sculptor, architect and photographer. He used almost all available art tools and boldly experimented with the form, color and material in his works.

1863 - 1958

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An American and French artist of Jewish origin, photographer, director, publicist, the most famous representative of Cubism and Dadaism, who played an important role in the development and dissemination of these and other new trends on the American continent.

1890 - 1976

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Martiros Sergeevich (Sarkisovich) Saryan was a Russian and Armenian landscape painter, graphic artist and theater artist.He was born into an Armenian patriarchal family. In 1897-1904, he passed a course at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.An active participant in the exhibitions of “Blue rose”, The Union of Russian artists, “The World of art”, the magazine “Gold Fleece", the association "Four Arts". The founder of the Academy of Arts in Armenia had a title of academician, People’s Artist of the USSR, Hero of social labor, was awarded state prizes. The creativity and activity of M. S. Saryan played a leading role in the formation of the national Armenian school of painting. The House-Museum of Martiros Saryan was opened in Yerevan.“Nature creates a man, in order to look at itself with its eyes, to enjoy its amazing beauty,” - said the artist about creativity.

1880 - 1972

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An African-American self-taught painter, one of the very first and most talented black artists of the naive style in his country.Horace Pippin achieved success in America (then - “a country for whites”) and became incredibly popular during his lifetime. He managed to develop his talent and achieve mastery of such heights that his paintings are placed in the same row with the works of such a world-famous artist as Customs Officer Rousseau (France). Works of the highly gifted black painter are in many American museums.

1888 - 1946

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An Austrian artist of Czech descent, an outstanding representative of Expressionism.He was born into the family of a hereditary jeweller from the Czech Republic. His childhood and youth passed in Vienna, where he initially studied chemistry; at the age of 19, he entered the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts.A student of Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoshka was the leader of Austrian Art Nouveau, a member of the Berlin group "Sturm" and a participant in numerous art exhibitions, a professor at the Dresden and Salzburg Academy of Arts. He is also known as a talented writer and playwright, whose works attracted the attention with their boldness and caused an ambiguous reaction of the public. Kokoschka's work has laid down the main features that later were characteristic for Expressionist painting and theatre. In 1980, the Austrian Federal Government established the Oskar Kokoschka Award, one of the largest Austrian awards in the field of contemporary art.

1886 - 1980

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A Ukrainian painter, innovator, graphic artist and talented teacher.Oleksa was born into the family of a forester, who worked at the estate of the aristocratic Polish family of Brzozowski. Count Tadeusz Grokholsky, the brother-in-law of the landowner, noticed the gifted guy and advised his sister to allocate Novakivsky scholarship and thus ensure his education.The work of the artist covers different genres: landscapes and portraits, still-lifes and plot pictures. Novakivsky created the first in Western Ukraine Art School of a new type headed the Faculty of Art of the Lviv Secret Ukrainian University. UNESCO declared 1972 a year of the artist’s memory; in the same year, the art and memorial museum of O. Novakivsky was opened in Lviv, in the house where he lived and worked for more than 20 years.

1872 - 1935

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A Ukrainian artist, painter and graphic artist. He was the founder of the monumental art of Ukraine, during the 20th century. He worked in the styles of Expressionism, primitivism and socialist realism. The teacher of the rural school where young Mykhaylo studied, noticing the talent of the guy, wrote about him in the newspaper with the goal of finding a mentor for the beginning artist. The artist from Lvov, Julian Pankevich, took Mykhaylo under the patronage. He taught him at his workshop, went with him for six months to Vienna to get acquainted with the museums. He was the leader of a group of like-minded people, called "boychukists" in the history of the fine arts. A member of the Scientific Society named after T. Shevchenko, Association of Revolutionary Art of Ukraine, one of the founders of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts. One of the representatives of the Executed Renaissance of Ukraine.

1882 - 1937

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A British Post-Impressionist artist, participant and first chairman of the London group Camden Town, which brought together leading avant-garde artists and had a huge impact on the development of the fine arts of Great Britain.Spencer was the fourth child of Spencer William Gore, the landowner and winner of the first Tennis Championship at Wimbledon in 1877.Spencer Gore participated in almost all art associations in London at the beginning of the twentieth century, actively promoting avant-garde creativity among fellow painters and youth. Showing outstanding diplomacy, Gore assembled in 1913 a fragmented art group for an exhibition of works by the British Post-Impressionists, Cubists and other contemporary artists. He was a member of other artistic associations, such as "Fitzroy Street" and "New English Art Club", and also wrote a number of journalistic articles on fine art.

1878 - 1914

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A Russian and Soviet painter, graphic artist and book illustrator, master of stage set and stage costume.He was born into a family of Peter Petrovich Konchalovsky, a hereditary nobleman, a writer, translator and publisher. In the 1890's, he studied at the Kharkov Art School, visited the evening classes of the Imperial Stroganov School of Art and Industry. After that, he studied at the private academy of Julian in Paris.Peter Petrovich Konchalovsky was one of the founders and active participants of the art association "Knave of Diamonds" and its chairman from 1911. He was also a member of the progressive art associations "Union of Youth" (since 1911), "The World of Art" (with interruptions until 1922), "Genesis" (in 1926-1927). He was an academician and full member of the Academy of Arts of the country, a laureate of prestigious awards.

1876 - 1956

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Synopsis.A famous Polish painter, graphic artist, master of arts and crafts, writer and playwright, a talented teacher.He was born into the family of a professional sculptor. After the death of his mother, he was brought up in the family of Stankevichs – the maternal line relatives, which gave Stanisław a good education. Despite the fact that Krakow was a provincial town of Austria-Hungary, it retained the best traditions of Polish culture, and the Stankevichs' house was constantly visited by people close to art. Here the future artist got acquainted with his mentor, famous painter Jan Matejko, who noticed the artistic talent of the boy.Stanisław Wyspianski played one of the leading roles in the cultural movement "Young Poland", being engaged in the revival and popularization of national culture. Critics even call him "the fourth Polish prophet" along with such outstanding cultural figures as Mickiewicz, Slovak and Krasinsky. The artist is known as the author of several monumental murals and mosaics in the churches of Lviv, Krakow and other cities. He was an active participant of the influential art community "Art" and the editor of the progressive magazine "Life", and his satire play "Wedding", mocking the shortcomings of contemporary Polish society, was very popular. Stanisław Wyspianski made a great contribution to the development of Polish art and national self-consciousness through his versatile creative work.

1869 - 1907

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A Russian and Soviet artist, a teacher and a memoirist. He worked in such styles as Post-Impressionism and Rayonism. He worked in the genres of easel and monumental painting, as well as a graphic and book illustrator.Was born into the family of an inspector supervising homes for the orphans named after Empress Maria Fyodorovna. The mother of the future artist, Sophia Nensberg, a Swedish woman, was fond of drawing and became the first teacher of her son, though sometimes the drawings of her son outraged her.Romanovich was an active participant and even a "builder" of such groups as "Rayonists and Futurists", "Makovets", "Four Arts". The artist worked much as a teacher of drawing and painting in Voronezh and in Moscow. Talented essayist Romanovich wrote essays and sketches about famous artists-compatriots, such as N. Ge, M. Larionov, P. Bromirsky, P. Mituriche, as well as P. Picasso and Van Gogh.Paintings of the artist decorate theaters, pavilions, industrial buildings of major cities of the USSR. The artist's paintings are in the main museums in Russia and in many regional museums and galleries of the country.

1894 - 1968

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A Norwegian Expressionist, graphic artist and illustrator. Nikolai Astrup was the founder of the Norwegian national landscape, who depicted the beauty of Western Norway in his own original and bright manner.The father of the future artist was a priest; he was appointed a vicar in the town of Yelster, where the whole family moved. Nikolai grew up in a picturesque area among mountains and forests; from childhood, he showed an interest in fine art. After graduating from high school in Trondheim, he returned home and began to teach reading and writing to his younger brothers and sisters. At this time, he began to draw a lot, although nowhere did he learn painting professionally. The artist's early works were mainly on religious themes.Having visited many European countries and trained in the best educational institutions in Paris, the artist retained deep affection and loyalty to his homeland. On his return home, he settled in the modest town of Yelster, where he lived his whole life, having a large family, farming and painting the views of nearby mountains, lakes and valleys. Despite the fact that after his death the artist's work was forgotten for some time, Nikolai Astrup is considered one of the greatest Norwegian artists of the early 1900s. His works are sold at prestigious auctions and are highly appreciated among collectors around the world.

1880 - 1928

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A Greek Expressionist and graphic artist, one of the main reformers of Greek painting of the early 20th century.He was born into the family of famous painter Nikiforos Lytras. Since childhood, he demonstrated his ability for fine arts, painting under the guidance of his father. From 1902 to 1906, he studied at the Athens School of Fine Arts, where among his teachers was also George Yakovidis - a bright representative of the Munich School of Painting in Greece.Nikolaos Lytras was the son and pupil of famous academic artist Nikiforos Lytras. Despite the traditional views of his father, he not only worked in a progressive European style, but also promoted the spread of modern painting in his homeland. Together with his associates, he organized the art group "Association Art", which had an anti-academic orientation and brought fresh stream into the monotonous world of Greek painting. Being a professor at the Athens School of Fine Arts, Lytras conducted important reforms in the institution that gave impetus to the development of new painting in the country and had a great influence on the generation of young artists of Greece, starting in the 1930s.

1883 - 1927

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A Russian artist, decorator, graphic artist, one of the bright and active founders of the Russian avant-garde in its several directions. He worked in the styles of late Impressionism and Fauvism, Primitivism and Futurism, Rayonism, Surrealism.The artist was born into a military paramedic's family. Mikhail liked to paint from childhood and often returned to Tiraspol for summer sketches.Larionov was the inventor and theorist of the style of "Rayonism", which was recognized in the history of the world culture and was a forerunner and an integral part of the non-objective art, but existed mainly in Russia. Bright organizational talent manifested itself in the organization of famous groups "Jack of Diamonds" and "Donkey's Tail". As a decorator and costume designer, he worked in many productions of S. Diaghilev's Russian Ballets.In Paris, Larionov appeared as a graphic artist and as an outstanding theater artist. His sketches for decorations and costumes became independent works and were included in collections of museums and private collections, like "Lady with a fan".Whatever Larionov created, his living art has an amazing ability not to leave the viewer indifferent.

1881 - 1964

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A Mexican artist and monumentalist, graphic artist and sculptor, a vivid representative of the avant-garde, who worked in several new styles and promoted national traditions and culture by his work.Rufino was a Zapotec Indian by blood, although he did not look like a purebred Indian. After the death of his mother, the boy was brought up by his aunt, in whose shop in Mexico City he helped to trade. In the future, the young artist had a predilection for "fruit" still lifes.The master received many prestigious awards, his personal vernissages were held, except for Mexico, in the US and Europe. The museum of Rufino Tamayo was opened in the artist's native city Oaxaca in the south of Mexico. In the capital of Mexico, there is the Museum-Gallery of R. Tamayo, to which the artist donated a large and very valuable collection of paintings by contemporary artists (Picasso, Braque, Leger, Bacon, etc.).

1899 - 1991

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An Austrian artist who worked in the style of Expressionism.He was born into a well-to-do Jewish family. The father of the artist was a rich businessman of Hungarian origin; his mother was a Czech-German Catholic. Richard did not study well at school; was expelled from the prestigious institution in Vienna, with the record "disciplinary difficulties» in his characteristic. The wealthy parents even hired private teachers for the young man.Richard Gerstl was known for his unique portraits revealing the essence of the human soul and based on the teachings of Freud. The artist was a rebel and freethinker; his work was not properly assessed among his contemporaries. Gerstl lived only 25 years, though in his short life managed to make an invaluable contribution to the development of European Expressionism. His psychological painting served as the basis for the German branch of this movement, the brightest representative of which is Oskar Kokoshka.

1883 - 1908

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A Russian Symbolist painter and graphic artist, theater artist and decorator.Sergey was born into the family of a lieutenant colonel who served in the Gendarmerie Separate Corps. In 1897–1909, he studied (with a break in 1902 due to temporary exclusion because of the presentation of his works of frivolous content at the student exhibition) at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture; was a student of A. Arkhipov, A. Stepanov, A. Vasnetsov, N. Kasatkina, L. Pasternak.He was one of the organizers of the Blue Rose group, as well as a founding member of the revived “World of Art”, a member and designer of the literary cabaret “Stray Dog”, a participant in the expositions “Wreath” and “Wreath-Stefanos”, movements that played a significant role in the history Russian art. S. Sudeikin published his graphic works in the magazines "Libra", "Apollo", "Golden Fleece", "Satyricon" and "New Satyricon".

1882 - 1946

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Hungarian avant-garde artist, who lived and worked in France for many years and became a part of the Paris School of Painting.He began his creative career as a realist, close to naturalism. He was born into the family of the owner of the famous cafe "Balaton". At the age of 11, he became deaf because of meningitis and was forced to abandon his studies at the gymnasium, graduating only after 4 classes. He inherited his artistic talent from his mother. He studied at the Székesfehérvár Industrial School of L. Telegdi and J. Böhm (1903-1905) and in private schools. Later, studying objectivity tension and applying a variety of innovative techniques, he came to more thematically emotional painting, the form of which was more vanguard. In his motherland, he was a member of such progressive associations of masters of fine arts as HIRC (Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists Circle) and "Nyolcak" ("The Eight"). In Paris, Lajos Tihanyi was one of the representatives of the international group "Abstraction-Création", which actively worked between 1931 and 1936. Paintings exhibited not only in Budapest, but also in Europe (Vienna, Berlin, Paris) and the United States. They are now in several museums and galleries around the world.

1885 - 1938

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Vilhelms Kārlis Purvītis (also known as Vilhelms-Karl Egorovich Purvit) was one of the most famous Latvian landscape painters, as well as a master of graphic art.In the 1890s, he was a free visitor of the Petersburg Academy of Arts, worked at the class of painting; in 1896, he was enrolled in the landscape studio of Arkhip Kuindzhi.One of the founders (along with J. Rosenthals, J. Valter, A. Alksnis) of modern painting in Latvia, in particular, the school of landscape painting. Founder of the Latvian Academy of Arts, its first rector (1919-1934), who taught at the landscape class until 1941. Director of the Riga City Art Museum, organizer of many exhibitions in his country and abroad.Vilhelms Purvitis several thousand works during his life. However, most of the canvasses were destroyed in Jelgava during an air raid in 1944. Only about 150 paintings of the master have survived.

1872 - 1945

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Tyko Konstantin Sallinen was a Finnish artist, the most outstanding figure of the fine art of the early 20th century in his country, the organizer and intellectual leader of creative associations in his homeland, the most significant of which is the November Group.Sallinen was born into a tailor's family, was the eldest child. The family soon moved to Haparanda in Sweden, where the boy spent his childhood, attended school for four years and studied sewing under the guidance of the strict father. The family was puritanical, belonged to a fundamentalist sect and rejected worldly pleasures, including art. Tyko left home at the age of 14 after being beaten by his father once again and lived working as an assistant of a tailor. Returned to the family after 4 years.It is difficult to find a more revolutionary rebel figure among European artists than Tyko Sallinen. Even the fact that there is the term "the first war of Sallinen", “the second", "the small third" in art history, which is understandable to all, speaks of how fiercely he fought with the "old" in the fine arts.The art and personality of the master, who was rebellious, raised a wave of interest in new techniques, but all foreign movements were based on the traditions of Finnish art. The artist was an honorary member of the Royal Academy in Sweden and received the title of the professor of the Finnish Association of Visual Arts. Many essays and books were written about him and a film about his life and work was shot.

1879 - 1955

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A Polish artist, literary critic, poet and playwright, who sought to combine the naivete of folk art with contemporary art movements: Dadaism and Futurism. The parents of the future artist were landowners and gave his son a good education. Tytus graduated from the secondary school in Nowy Sącz, and in 1902 entered the painting faculty of the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków. Here his teachers were outstanding artists Yu. Mehoffer and S. Wyspianski. Having received an education in Paris and participated in the exhibition of the Salon of Independent in 1911, Tytus Czyzewski had a strong influence on the development of the avant-garde art of Poland. He was a participant and one of the organizers of the group of Polish Expressionists, which was then converted into the group "Formists", and edited the magazine with the same name. For several years he worked in the Embassy of Poland in Paris, was engaged in teaching activities, published scientific works in the field of art.

1885 - 1945

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An outstanding Hungarian painter and graphic artist, who worked in a transitional style, between Art Nouveau to Expressionism.Among the ancestors on his mother's side (Rosa Waginger was born in Vienna), there were several artists, and Vilmos from his childhood decided to devote himself to the fine arts. The future artist carefully prepared for the entrance examinations to the Hungarian Royal School of Drawing, which he entered in 1912. The teacher of Aba-Novak was famous painter Adolf Fényes.V. Aba-Novak was one of the most original and contradictory talents of modern painting in Hungary, paving the way for an entire generation of avant-garde artists with his extraordinary creativity. In addition to paintings, the master is known for his monumental works adorning the public buildings and churches of the country. The most large-scale and famous are the frescoes in the church in Yassenrandras, the Heroes' Gate in Szeged and the Mausoleum of St. Stephen in Székesfehérvár. The art of Vilmos Aba-Novak was noticed and appreciated when he was alive. The artist was awarded the Grand Prix of the jury of the World Exhibition in Paris in 1939 and the Great Prize of the Venice Biennale of 1940. He was a demanded teacher, and his vivid individual style had many admirers and followers among young talented artists.

1894 - 1941

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Polish artist, outstanding painter and graphic artist Wojciech Weis is one of the key figures of Polish modernism. Wojciech began to study as an artist in Lviv. Then he attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, at first as a free listener. Artist recognized and appreciated during his lifetime; he was a member of the Vienna Secession and the Society of Polish Artists, the professor and rector of the Cracow Academy of Fine Arts. The master had a huge influence on the development of Polish culture at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Despite all the titles and awards, Wojciech Weiss was in constant creative search, experimenting with a variety of techniques and trends in painting. The artist enriched Polish art with the latest European tendencies and contributed to the cultural rise of the country, which was called "Young Poland". The museum of the artist is opened in Krakow.

1875 - 1950

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An outstanding Ukrainian artist, a painter and graphic artist who worked in Russia and France, a member of “The World of Art”, one of the first women who simultaneously entered the history of painting of Ukraine, Russia and France. Known for the portraits of outstanding people of her time, paintings on rural themes and monumental paintings.Zinaida was born into a family of prominent masters. Nikolai Benois, the grandfather of her mother, was a famous architect, her father Eugene Lansere, who died early, was a famous sculptor, her uncle, A. Benois, was an outstanding contemporary artist. After the death of the head of the family in 1886, the mother and six of her children moved to St. Petersburg, but they spent each summer at Neskuchnoye and Veseloye estates. The family visited the Hermitage and theaters, did not miss a single exhibition. All relatives were engaged in creative work and encouraged the studies of Zina, who had been painting since childhood. The choice of the portrait genre was prompted by communication with numerous relatives - bright masters (uncle A. Benois, brothers Lansere, etc.) and guests, such as K. Somov, A. Akhmatova, J. Annenkov. Later, in Paris, she painted S. Prokofiev, artist S. Ivanov, and others.Due to the tragically developing life (and political) circumstances, and also because of her very modestly shy and unpractical nature, Z. E. Serebryakova received deserved recognition only in the 1960s, when a number of exhibitions successfully took place in several cities of Russia. In France, the artist was rarely exhibited, but her magnificent portraits were popular. In the homeland of the artist in the village of Neskuchnoye near Kharkov, there are "Neskuchnoye plein-airs" of her name, and there is The Serebryakova’s Foundation created by her children Alexander and Catherine in France. Critics and connoisseurs characterized Serebryakova as an outstanding master of "European significance", but the voice of the artist, whose art was almost realistic, drowned in the noise around abstract arts and other new delights. In art history, however, there are terms "serebryakova’s painting" and " serebryakova’s portrait”. The canvases of the artist adorn the collections of the best museums of Europe, Ukraine and Russia.

1884 - 1967

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A German innovative artist, a prominent representative of the colony of Worpswede artists, a wife of famous painter Otto Modernsohn.Born into a cultural and intellectual family. Paula was the third of seven children; since childhood, she painted and played music together with her brothers and sisters. In 1888, the Becker family moved from Dresden to Bremen, where her father received the position of an architect.Paula Modersohn-Bekker was one of the first Expressionists, who was unrecognized during her lifetime, but over time became a famous representative of European visual art. While living in Paris, she communicated with the most advanced artists and sculptors, was in close friendship with R. Rilke and members of the Nabi group. Her paintings reflect a deep understanding of contemporary artist trends in art, but at the same time reflect her rich inner world. Despite the fact that Paula Moderzon-Becker died young and sold only a few works during her entire creative career, she is considered one of the most important contemporary German artists - the direct predecessor of German Expressionism.

1876 - 1907

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A Brazilian artist, one of the leaders of Brazilian avant-garde painting.She was the second daughter of an Italian engineer and American B. Krug, an art teacher who initiated the artistic and cultural education of her youngest daughter. The future artist was born with atrophy of the right hand. Three-year-old Anita was sent to Lucca (Italy) to correct the defect, but to no avail. The girl learned to draw with her left hand under the guidance of American teacher Marcia Brown.The exhibition of 53 paintings by the artist in 1917 is the first in the history of the fine arts of this country, where works in the style of expressionism with elements of cubism and other latest trends were presented. She was the organizer of the landmark festival "Week of Art", a member of the progressive art group "Five".

1889 - 1964

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An English artist and designer. She was a member of the creative group "Bloomsbury", the participants of which were British intellectuals, talented painters and poets.Vanessa Bell, maiden name Vanessa Stephen, was born into a creative family. The artist's father was a famous historian, literary critic, theologian and climber Leslie Stephen, who gave his daughter an initial art education. The sister of the artist was famous writer Virginia Woolf.Vanessa Bell was among the first artists who dared to break the barrier between Britain and the mainland. She not only boldly used the methods of Post-impressionism and Art Nouveau in her work, but also actively developed avant-garde movements in England.

1879 - 1961

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Polish artist, draftsman, graphic artist and book illustrator. He was born in the family of a cashier of the bank, was one of eleven children. Witold was interested in art from childhood.He also wrote satirical texts for «Kolets» magazine, actively participated in the activity of "Green Balloon" cabaret, in the publication of elite magazine "Liberum Veto" under the pseudonym "Count Voitek". Was engaged in book graphics. He created a collection of travesty-retellings of the works by the most respected artists, among whom there were Olga Boznanska, Jan Stanislavsky and Leon Vichulkovsky. Being affected by the spirit of fantasy, Wojtkiewicz was able to portray the imaginary world as real. He depicted scenes with children inspired by fairy-tale plots ("Kidnapping of the princess"). Burlesque scenes in the style of Toulouse-Lautrec are, at the same time, more often not deprived of lyricism.Not surviving by his thirtieth birthday, the artist managed to leave a legacy that preceded the development of Expressionism and Surrealism.In 1976, a large retrospective exhibition of the artist was held at the Polish National Museum of Krakow.

1879 - 1909

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A Dutch painter, graphic artist and illustrator. A participant of the famous Bergen school. Along with Piet Mondrian and Ian Torop, the artist worked in a variety of styles, from Impressionism to Cubism and Expressionism, in which he showed himself most vividly.Leendert was born into a large family. His father and uncle were professional artists and gave the boy an initial art education.Leendert (Leo) Gestel was among the leading artists of Dutch Modernism, who did a lot to promote the advanced art trends in the country. He took part in the first exhibition of “The Circle of Contemporary Art" - an association of artists focused on avant-garde trends in painting, in particular, Cubism and Futurism. In addition to a large number of paintings and drawings, Leo Gestel was engaged in the creation of posters and the design of household items, illustrated a large number of books and magazines.Museum of Leo Gastel, which is now popular, was created in his house in Blaricum.

1881 - 1941

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A Dutch painter, graphic artist and illustrator. A participant of the famous Bergen school. Along with Piet Mondrian and Ian Torop, the artist worked in a variety of styles, from Impressionism to Cubism and Expressionism, in which he showed himself most vividly.Leendert was born into a large family. His father and uncle were professional artists and gave the boy an initial art education.Leendert (Leo) Gestel was among the leading artists of Dutch Modernism, who did a lot to promote the advanced art trends in the country. He took part in the first exhibition of “The Circle of Contemporary Art" - an association of artists focused on avant-garde trends in painting, in particular, Cubism and Futurism. In addition to a large number of paintings and drawings, Leo Gestel was engaged in the creation of posters and the design of household items, illustrated a large number of books and magazines.Museum of Leo Gastel, which is now popular, was created in his house in Blaricum.

1881 - 1941

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Polish artist of Jewish origin, who was born in the Russian Empire and worked in America. Being born in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Max Weber came early with his family to New York. The very first studying of fine arts took place at the Brooklyn School. His mentor was Arthur Wesley Doe – a rather progressive teacher in the conservative environment of that time. Doe strongly influenced the formation of Weber as a champion of new approaches to the fine arts.

1881 - 1961

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A Finnish artist and graphic artist, a bright representative of Symbolism and one of the first expressionists in the country.Ellen was born into a family of a major official. Her first teacher was her father, and he shared his knowledge with his six children. Considering the talent of his daughter, he supported her studies in private official schools of painting. An endless source of inspiration for the artist was Italy and the works of such outstanding masters as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. Italy was the spiritual home of the artist. Here she spent most of her time regularly visiting the country for 45 years. Ellen Tesleff said that only in Italy she was able to understand the true nature of light, how it lays down on objects, how it animates everything around. In Tuscany and Florence, most of her landscapes were created they later became more expressionistic.Ellen Tesleff was an innovative artist. During her long career, she tried a variety of artistic methods and styles, but always remained true to her own romantic and emotional manner. The great merit of the artist is to popularize European art in Finland. Together with his companion and friend Magnus Enckell, she became the founder of the art group "Septem", which contributed to the development of avant-garde painting in Scandinavia.

1869 - 1954

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A French artist of Jewish origin, born in Belarus. A bright representative of the "Paris School" and Expressionism not typical for it.The tragic fate of the artist who had always been persecuted because of his nationality impacted his art – its peculiarity is gloomy moods. The paintings of the artist were actively bought by the galleries and museums of the USA and Israel; in his motherland, the first painting by Soutine appeared only in 2012. «The great meadows in Chartres» were purchased at the Christie's Auction by Belgazprombank; next year, the same organisation purchased the painting of Soutine «Eve» at the Sotheby's auction.

1893 - 1943

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An Italian painter, sculptor, talented restorer and poet, who worked in America (New York) for some time.Dossena was born in the small village of Lodigiano in the Italian commune of Kevenego d'Adde, Lombardy. The boy was 12, when the father of a large and mostly minor family died. Together with the eldest 14-year-old brother, Giuseppe took care of his younger brothers and sisters. Only when they all got families, he was able to get married and do visual arts.The artist made a significant contribution to the development of such Italian art movements as Neo-impressionism and Expressionism. He was successful and recognized during his life, a member of several academies and creative associations, was awarded the prestigious awards of Italy and the United States in the field of art and literature.

1903 - 1987

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An English artist of German-Jewish origin. One of the most extraordinary and popular painters of the twentieth century. A grandson of famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.He was born into a Jewish-German family. Before the Second World War, the family moved to London, where Lucien studied at the Central School of Art, the School of Painting and Drawing in East Anglia and Goldsmiths College. Since his childhood, he had demonstrated great abilities for the fine arts. One of his drawings was chosen for an exhibition of children's art at the London gallery Peggy Guggenheim. Because of bad behavior, he did not finish his studies and went to work for the merchant navy.Lucien Freud mostly painted portraits and nude models in the interior. He was notable for his unusual approach to the depicted objects and rejected all canons in painting. The artist is known for images of celebrities, among which there are popular actors, musicians and even Elizabeth II, the Queen of Britain. The original manner in which the artist worked was often criticized, although it provided him tremendous success. One of his paintings, "The Sleeping Social Worker" - was sold at Christie's auction for record 17.2 million pounds sterling. In addition, Lucien Freud entered history as one of the central figures of the "London School of Painting" - a movement that contrasted itself with popular abstract art and became the basis for the emergence of a new generation of British artists.

1922 - 1911

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A German impressionist painter, one of the leading figures of art in Germany at the turn of the ХІХ and ХХ centuries.The artist's parents kept a farm and a leather workshop. In the years 1866-1873, he studied at the Kneiphof Grammar School in Konigsberg, living with his aunt. Lovis Corinth worked in the style of "German impressionism", subsequently reached the heights of Expressionism. The artist’s early works were created in the most naturalistic manner.He was a member of the Berlin Secession, later replaced Max Lieberman as a chairman. L. Corinth participated in social activities; his paintings were popular and best-selling. The work of the painter is a synthesis of Impressionism and Expressionism. Artist’s canvases were victims of the Third Reich. When the Nazis came to power, his paintings were declared “destructive”; they were confiscated from art salons and galleries; many talented works were destroyed.

1858 - 1925

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Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp was a French and American artist, an art theorist, one of the founders of such art movements as Dadaism and Surrealism.Was born into a wealthy family. His mother, brothers and sister were engaged in painting, and Marcel grew up in a creative atmosphere, which contributed to the early manifestation of his talent. Following the older brothers, he began to paint in the style of impressionism, presenting quite interesting works from the age of 14.Marcel Duchamp, despite a small number of his works, was one of the most influential figures of fine art after the First World War, a genius and a rebel, who pushed the scope of painting beyond what was permitted. The artist was the author of the "ready-made" method, being the first to use the idea of ​​creating art objects from the most common objects, such as a bicycle wheel and even a urinal. The unusual and sometimes shocking creativity of Duchamp has opened wide opportunities for the further development of avant-garde art all over the world.At the end of his career, the artist departed from painting, preferring to use already finished objects for his works, which he called "ready-made", or creating voluminous collages. In addition to his artistic creativity, Marcel Duchamp starred in films, wrote articles and studied chess, in which he was a professional. Thanks to his versatile and unordinary talent, he left a bright mark in the art of the early twentieth century and laid the foundation for the emergence of completely new methods and trends in painting.

1887 - 1968

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One of the most talented symbolic artists of Belgium, an illustrator and graphic artist.The artist was born into the family of a perfumer and owner of a hairdressing salon. As a child, Leon was very quiet and, at the same time, a creative person, fond of poetry, prose and painting. He painted, wrote poetry and prose.Leon Spiellart left a bright mark on the history of European painting. He participated in the Salon of Independence in 1911 in Brussels, which was the largest event in the field of art, and together with Ensor and Permke exhibited his paintings at the gallery Sélection, where avant-garde works of Belgium were presented. In the heyday of Expressionism, his self-sufficient and bold art did not find a large number of fans, and was little known outside his homeland. Nevertheless, it strongly influenced the development of several artistic trends of the future. In our time, the interest in the works of Leon Spiellart was revived, his works were appreciated by art lovers and approved by art critics.

1881 - 1946

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An Israeli and Romanian artist and architect, publisher and writer, a significant figure in the world avant-garde of the 20th century.He was born into a Jewish family. While studying at a secondary school, he also took private piano lessons and individual painting lessons from Romanian Expressionist Joseph Izer.He was a theorist of Dadaism and one of the leading exhibitors of constructivism in Easter Europe, as well as a founding member of several creative and innovative associations of artists in Romania and Israel. Marcel Janko became an organizer and designer of the village of painters and sculptors in Ein Hod near Haifa (Israel), where the Yanko-Dada Museum and studios are now actively working. He is a laureate of several prestigious awards in his historical motherland.

1895 - 1984

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Synopsis.A French artist and sculptor whose works are known all over the world as the best examples of Cubism in painting.Roger de la Fresnaye was born in a wealthy aristocratic family in Le Mans Department of Sarthe. His father was a soldier and gave his son a classical education. As a young man, he studied at several Paris art schools, including the School of Fine Arts and the Ranson Academy in Paris. One of the teachers of de la Fresnaye was the school's founder, artist Paul Ranson, as well as P. Serusier and M .Denis, who influenced the early Symbolist style of the artist.A student of the Ranson Academy, Roger de la Fresnaye worked in a softer and more relaxed version of Cubism than his colleagues, preferring recognizable forms of complete abstraction. Throughout his rather short life, the artist participated in several exhibitions at the Salon of Independent and at the Autumn Salon, was a member of "Golden Section", the group of Cubists, and presented his paintings at the famous exhibition of abstract artists at the gallery of La Boétie in Paris. Together with his friends, he designed the famous "Cubist house", presented at the Autumn Salon of 1912. For this project, which was a mock-up of a whole apartment house, Roger de la Fresnaye created wooden things, interior doors, unique watches, candlesticks and other decorative and interior elements.

1885 - 1925

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Georges Henri Rouault was a French artist and graphic artist whose work played an important role in the formation of Fauvism and Expressionism in painting. He was born into a poor family. His parents gave him as a pupil to glazier Tamoni, and then as an apprentice to a stained glass workshop. Georges Rouault was one of the most brilliant artists of the early twentieth century, who not only expressed the general tendencies of his time, but also introduced something completely new and fresh in contemporary art. The artist was one of the founders of the Autumn Salon in 1903, and took part in the sensational exposition of the Fauvists, whom critics called "wild" for the excessively intense colors of their paintings, in 1905. Rouault created illustrations and ceramics, as well as was engaged in creating a stage design. He is the author of the scenery and costumes for S. Prokofiev's ballet “The Prodigal Son” directed by S. Diaghilev. At the end of his life, the artist made a large number of stained glass windows, which are distinguished by their extraordinary color expressiveness.

1871 - 1958

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An American artist of German descent, outstanding graphic artist and cartoonist, photographer, talented teacher. He was born into a family of musicians from Germany. From an early age, he demonstrated musical abilities; his parents saw him as a successful musician. After the family moved to Germany in 1887, Lyonel preferred fine art to music. He attended an art school in Hamburg; in 1889-1892 he was a student at the Art Academy in Berlin. In his student years, the artist began collaborating with the magazine "Humorous Pages", where he published his caricatures.Lyonel Feininger became famous in the United States as the author of witty caricatures and funny comics that were published in weekly magazines; although, he gained true recognition in his historical homeland - in Germany, where his most fruitful years passed. Feininger closely collaborated with the members of the Munich association "Blue Rider" and actively participated in joint exhibitions of Expressionists. He was one of the founders of the group "Four Blues", which, unfortunately, lasted a very short time. The artist's life is connected with the Weimar "Bauhaus": there he taught engraving and painting, illustrated didactic publications and designed the art gallery of the institution. The work of the artist is marked by his own bright style, based on a mixture of Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism with a touch of romance in the stories and images.

1871 - 1956

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Jan (Johannes) Sluijters, was a Dutch artist an illustrator, poster master, a vivid representative of Expressionism.His father was an illustrator and engraver and developed the artistic talent of the boy from early childhood. At the age of fourteen, the artist moved with his parents and sister to Amsterdam, the city in which he spent most of his life.Johannes Sluijters was the pioneer of the Dutch avant-garde in general. Being at first rejected by conservative critics, but then winning a famous reputation among the public, in 1910, he together with Jan Toorop and other like-minded people founded a group of contemporary art that promoted avant-garde trends and opposed traditional academic canons in painting. Sluijters was also a member of the Association of Artists of The Hague and Amsterdam and was a member of the St. Lucas Society of Artists. Having received recognition in the second half of his career, the artist participated in many exhibitions throughout Europe and was a member of the jury of various competitions.

1881 - 1957

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An Australian avant-garde artist and sculptor, who worked for some time in Europe and America.Albert was born in the Australian city of Melbourne into the poor family of a railway worker. He had to leave school at the age of 14 to help his family. Not having formal artistic training, he got a job as a cartoonist and commercial illustrator at an advertising agency.He was a member of "Hyde Krug" - a group of progressive artists and writers, a member of the Society for Contemporary Art of Australia, created in 1938 by J. Bell as an alternative to the Academy of Arts. He became one of the organizers of "Angry Penguins" ("Evil Penguins"), the avant-garde movement of the 1940s and the co-author of the issues of the eponymous magazine.Tucker often took pictures, using them to create paintings, and also wrote down ideas and scenes that were sketches for his works - he accidentally created eyewitness documents for the history of his time.The artist was awarded many prestigious awards in Australia and the USA, his paintings are presented in all Australian public galleries, in museums and galleries in New York.Barbara Tucker, Albert's wife, kept the artist's archives and family estate. The Albert and Barbara Tucker Foundation was established, as well as the artist's museum.

1914 - 1999

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An outstanding Belgian artist and draftsman, who created his works primarily in the styles of impressionism, including luminism, and expressionism. He worked in the genres of landscape, rural subjects, carnival and circus scenes, still life, nude, and also performed wood engravings.Born into the family of painter J. F. de Smet. At first, he learned painting from his father, creating decorative panels, signs, frescoes for theaters, shops, hotels and country houses with his brother Leon.Gustave de Smet was an active member of the Lateme School (the second Expressionist wave), which had a particularly powerful impact on the development of all contemporary painting in Belgium. He was also an active member of Le Groupe des IX (The Group of Nine), an influential art community in Antwerp and the Centaur group in Brussels.

1877 - 1943

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An Irish artist and writer, considered the biggest English painter of the XX century.Jack Butler Yeats was the youngest son of a painter John Butler Yeats. His elder brother William became a poet and Nobel laureate. The childhood of the future artist passed on the East of Ireland in the county of Sligo. He learnt the basics of fine arts from his father.During his lifetime, Jack Yeats was recognized and famous as a master of landscape and plot painting, a book illustrator, creator of graphics, including caricature. The most amazing fact of his biography may be considered his victory at Olympic games in France in 1924, when painting, like sculpture and architecture, was an Olympic category. J. Yeats remains a popular master – in 2011, the painting “A Just Day. Mayo" (1925) was sold for one million euros.

1871 - 1957

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An outstanding German painter, the founder of Expressionism.Born into the family of professional landscape painter Wilhelm Marc. His mother, a strict Calvinist, was from the French Switzerland - it was her, rather severe upbringing that made the boy serious and thoughtful.The Expressionist movement became so famous because of its interest in the spirituality of the Symbolists, and also due to the harmonious combination of Primitivism, Fauvism and the vector into the flourishing abstraction. Franz Mark included all these styles in his painting style, adding love to theology and to the animal world. To create an alternative, more spiritual vision of the world, he depicted it through the view of animals that emphasized those aspects of modernity that he considered unfavorable. It is also important that his later works moved into almost pure abstraction.He was an active participant and the main organizer of the Munich Artistic Union of artists-innovators "Blue Horseman", created the almanac of the same name. A number of world avant-garde movements of the 20th century considered the work of this artist, who died on the fronts of the First World War, their predecessor. The museum of Franz Marc works in the Bavarian Kochel am See.

1880 - 1916

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American artist-innovator with a German-Jewish and Czech pedigree, who worked a long time in Germany.He was an invited member of the exhibition of the art group Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider, Blue Rider) and the only American author associated with the European (Munich and Berlin) Expressionist movement of the early 20th century and the work of the famous German school Bauhaus. For many years (1923-1947), A. Bloch was a professor at the University of Kansas in Lawrence and influenced the development of the newest American fine arts.

1882 - 1961

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A Polish artist, teacher, and publicist.Young Henryk studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow near Wojciech Weiss. In parallel with art education, he studied law at a local university.Henryk Gottlieb lived and worked for a long time in England, where he was a member of Modernist community "The London Group", he also exhibited his works repeatedly in Paris. Despite his success abroad, the artist did not lose touch with his homeland, participated in exhibitions of contemporary Polish artists and in 1919 became one of the founders of “Formist group”, which opposed Academicism and naturalistic imitation of nature. Gottlieb was an active participant of "The Society of Polish Artists" and together with his colleagues organized the "Voice of Artists" studio in Krakow. In the 1930s, he taught painting and drawing at the Mehoffer Art School, and later lectured at The College of Art in London and Hampstead. Henryk Gottlieb published two books on art: "Polish Painting" and "The Wanderings of the Artist", which contain a lot of information about the European art culture of the early twentieth century.

1890 - 1966

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Czech teacher, graphic artist and sculptor, one of the largest and brightest representatives of Cubism in his country. The editor of art magazines and an art theorist. Having survived concentration camps, after World War II, he became the first author whose personal exhibition was organized by the official Association of Czech Artists. Filla was engaged in teaching activities, but could not participate in exhibitions, because his works did not belong to Socialist realism. In co-authorship with Otto Guthfreind, the Czech artist created Cubist sculptures, considered to be the very first in the history of fine art. Later he applied this style in decorative and applied art, including painting on glass.Although Cubist architecture became a real phenomenon in the Czech Republic, thanks to the work of such masters as Emil Filla, the legacy in painting became a significant and important part of the European contemporary art. The artist left a significant creative legacy, including a large number of theoretical essays on art. In 1998, he was posthumously awarded The Order of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk of the 3rd degree for his services to the country.

1882 - 1953

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A French and American artist, designer, graphic illustrator, poet and publicist, who had Cuban citizenship.The artist's father was a Cuban attaché; his mother was a Frenchwoman. Financially secured Picabia studied with Fernand Cormon and other well-known teachers at the School of Applied Arts. After graduation, the artist worked at the studio of Cormon with his classmates Georges Braque and Marie Laurencin for the next four years.Francis Picabia became famous as an eccentric artist who does not obey any rules and stylistic dogmas in his work. He was called "Papa Dada", since he was the largest figure of the Dada movement in the United States and France, and the editor of the avant-garde magazine "391", where the works of artists of this movement were published. Together with his friend and companion Marcel Duchamp, Picabia had a great influence on contemporary art, in particular, on Surrealism and conceptualism. The main galleries of contemporary art in the world still actively acquire the master's paintings.

1879 - 1953

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A German artist, who had Danish citizenship. One of the leading Expressionist artists and one of the greatest watercolorists of the 20th century. He was the fourth son, of five children born into a poor family of farmer Niels Hansen, a northern frieze by nationality, which Emil often mentioned. With the transfer of the territory of Denmark, he obtained the citizenship of this country, which he always kept. He attended a German speaking school, worked hard from childhood. He studied carving and painting at the Flensburg School of Arts and Crafts. Took part in the restoration of the altar of the Bruggemans (Schleswig Cathedral); made an introductory and creative trip to Munich, an ancient city of Karlsruhe and Berlin. He worked at the Berlin Furniture Factory as a carver. In the 1890s, he created a series of grotesque images of mountain peaks (“mountain postcards”), the financial success of which allowed him to become a freelance artist. Although E. Nolde was a member of the leading avant-garde groups “Bridge” (Die Brücke), Blue Rider (Der Blaue Reiter), Berlin Secession, he did not like the very name “expressionism” and remained “a lonely artist”. He was elected an honorary member of several European academies and universities. More than a thousand paintings of the artist were arrested by the Nazis, he was denied the right to work, about three thousand paintings were broken during the bombing of Berlin. The museum of the artist was opened in Seebühl; his life is described in the book “German lesson” by Siegfried Lentz.

1867 - 1956

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A German artist, graphic artist, an author of emotionally intense, expressionistic and shocking paintings.He was born into the family of worker Franz Dix and sewer Polina. His mother instilled in his son a love for music and poetry.One of the founders of Dada movement was the most influential creator who formed the image of the Weimar Republic of the 1920s; his works are key in the movement “Neue Sachlichkeit” (“New objectivity” or “New Materiality"). He is one of the founders and participants in the union "Dresden Secession" (1919). In the canvases of Otto Dix, pacifist, social, and in later works biblical motives are vivid. The artist was a participant in two world wars.

1891 - 1869

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A Swiss and German painter, graphic artist, art theorist, one of the biggest figures of the European avant-garde.Paul, the son of a German father and a Swiss mother, was born on December 18 near Bern in Münchenbuchze. Both of his parents were musicians: his father taught music at a college, while his mother was a professional singer. From the age of seven, the boy played the violin, and other hobbies were drawing and writing poems. Despite the family's desire that his son builds a musical career, he decided to achieve success in the fine arts, where he could "create, and not just perform."A citizen of Germany, P. Klee was born, spent much of his life and died in Switzerland. He was an active member of Blue Horseman group, he taught at Bauhaus - an influential school of architecture and industrial design, at the Dusseldorf Academy of Arts. Pictures came to the exhibition of "degenerate" art. The influence of the creativity of Paul Klee extends to many styles of the 20th century: Surrealism and Minimalism, geometric Abstract art and Abstract expressionism. The Center of P. Klee was opened in Bern.

1879 - 1940

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An outstanding Romanian artist, graphic artist and illustrator of Jewish origin.The childhood of the future master was held in the city of Ploiesti. There he received a secondary education. Since from an early age, Joseph loved to draw and had a talent for this, he started working as a window dresser and poster designer.One of the most prolific painters of Romania of the 20th century, who achieved fame in Europe, worked in all genres, painting many portraits, including nudes, landscapes of his country, France and Spain, interior and genre scenes, still lifes. The expressionist artist who became a founding member of the association “Arta” (“Art”) that received the title of “People’s”, played a major role in shaping and promoting contemporary visual art in Romania.

1881 - 1958

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A Czech avant-garde artist. He was an active member of the Czech association "Eight" ("Osma") and the organizer of the first Prague exhibition "Independent", and also became a member of the group of the first German Expressionists "Bridge" (Die Brücke, Dresden, then Berlin) and Berlin's “New Secession".Bohumil was born and raised into a poor family. In 1896-1905, he studied at a real school, where he discovered a great mathematical ability. After graduation, he entered the Art and Industrial School (the School of Applied Arts) in Prague, which he left because of the conflict with the teacher. Then he intended to continue his studies at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts, although was completely dissatisfied with the classical teaching system. He left this educational institution, went to work in the army for money. The appearance of Kubista as a painter was influenced by E. Munch's exhibition, which he once visited.The artist's works are an adornment of the collections of many Czech galleries and museums. The works of Bohumil Kubista had a significant impact on the formation of the national avant-garde in its various manifestations, the painting of a young generation of artists of the period between world wars and the creative youth of the 1960s of the 20th century.Despite the fact that the entire creative career of Bohumil Kubista covers ten years, it is impossible to imagine the creation and development of the national Czech avant-garde painting without him. His work contributed to the spread of various theories of art in the Czech Republic, bringing it closer to the level of world achievements. Being not only a talented and original artist, B. Kubista said his word and in a European scale - the synthesis of art used by him is called a special "expressionistic cubism". The first Prague exhibitions of "independent" artists, who formed opposition to Academism, were held thanks to the active participation of Bohumil Kubista, an energetic organizer and uncompromising champion of contemporary art in their preparation.

1884 - 1918

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A French painter and graphic artist, lithographer and sculptor, a creator of a distinctively special sketch style that combined avant-garde painting with salon art.Was born into the family of a factory director. Was expelled from the Carnot lyceum with the wording of the Directorate: “he does not know how to learn and must find his own way in drawing”. The youth of the future artist passed in the occupied city, where the shortage of the most necessary and the absence of freedom were acutely felt. In 1943 - 1945, he attended the evening courses of the School of Drawing from Darfeil and studied at the School of Fine Arts in the studio of artist Narbonne, who recognized the genius of his pupil. His fellow students were M. Boitel, J. Picco, L. Willermoz.He was already recognized by the age of 20, for works that conveyed a melancholic mood and reflected the atmosphere in society after World War II. B. Buffet was greatly recognized during his lifetime, he was awarded many prestigious awards and prizes. Several paintings from the Passion of Christ series are in the Vatican Museum (Modern Religious Art Collection) the artist who created over 8,000 works is represented in dozens of the best museums around the world. In France and Japan, there are museums of the artist.

1928 - 1999

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An outstanding Hungarian artist of Jewish origin, one of the most famous representatives of the Hungarian avant-garde of the first half of the 20th century. He was born to a working-class Jewish family. Using the aesthetics and techniques of a number of modern movements, Bela Kadar created powerful images based on the Magyar (Hungarian) culture and legends. The artist was a member of popular Berlin art group “Der Sturm”, his works were exhibited in Europe and America, were bought by the national museum of Hungary and remain in demand in the world to this day.His favorite plots were those with galloping horses, toy horses or statuettes appearing in urban and interior paintings, portraits and landscapes. Another motif, often reproduced by the artist, is music. His naked women were depicted with guitars and other instruments in the most unexpected ways. The master's pictures with subjects written in a light manner became widely famous - they provided a viewer with aesthetic pleasure and easily fit into any interior. Today, his paintings are in many private and public collections around the world, including the Hungarian National Gallery in Budapest.

1877 - 1956

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Arthur Merrick Bloomfield Boyd was one of the most significant artists of Australia of the 20th century, a painter, ceramist, sculptor, engraver who has worked in England for more than 10 years.Born into the family of artists, in the suburb of Melbourne, Murrambine. His father was a sculptor and a ceramist and his mother was a painter; both older brothers became artists: David became a painter, Guy was a sculptor. Arthur left his school at age 14 to devote himself to painting.The work of A. Boyd, based on his outstanding talent and powerful, though somewhat gloomy imagination, played a big role in the development of the newest art of his country. He was one of the first artists to raise important social themes in painting. He was recognized during his lifetime and awarded many prizes and orders. He donated the vast territory of his estate and most of the paintings to the Australian people.The series of paintings created by Boyd and his very life are an integral part of the history of Australia, and not just its culture.

1920 - 1999

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A Russian, German and Swiss artist, who made a great contribution to the Expressionist art movement in Germany and Switzerland.She was the organizer of the New International Art Group of Munich, a member of the “Blue Rider” group. A big role was played by the society of artists "Great Bear" founded by her. The world-famous museum named after M. Werefkin works in Swiss Ascona, where there is a large collection of her paintings and works of her Expressionist colleagues, saved from being confiscated and destroyed after the Degenerative Exhibition of 1937

1860 - 1938

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A Belgian artist and sculptor, one of the leaders of the school of Flemish Expressionism.He was born into the family of a landscape painter Henri Permeke. Constant received his first form of education from his father.Constance Permeke was one of the founders of an innovative wave in the colony of artists in Sint-Martens-Latem near Ghent and headed the Antwerp Academy of Arts after the end of World War II. The artist enjoyed great fame and popularity during his lifetime. He organized several solo exhibitions, including in Paris and Brussels, and also participated in the Venice Biennale in 1934, which made him famous throughout the world. The most recognizable work of the author is the sculpture "Niobe", copies of which adorn the channels of Bruges and are a symbol of the city. Streets in several cities of Belgium, including Brussels, Antwerp and Ostend, are named after Constant Permeke. In the Belgian village of Jabbeke, a regional museum of the artist was opened.

1886 - 1952

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Cornelis (Kees) Theodorus Maria van Dongen is a French and Dutch artist and graphic artist, one of the founders of Fauvism.Kees van Dongen lived and worked in Paris, having obtained French citizenship in 1929. He participated in various exhibitions, including the famous Autumn Salon of 1905, together with H. Matisse, Vlaminck, Derain, Manguin, when the artists were first called fauvists ("wild") for their bright color paintings. The artist also drew cartoons for popular newspaper La Revue Blanche, organized costumed balls in Montparnasse. Since 1908, he became a member of the art association "Most" (Germany). Van Dongen was friendly with Pablo Picasso and his entourage, living in the famous hostel of Bato Lavoir in Montmartre. The artist's paintings brought him great popularity in the circles of the French bourgeoisie and, as a consequence, - prosperity. In 1926, Dongen was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor; in 1927, he was awarded the Order of the Crown of Belgium.

1877 - 1968

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A Hungarian self-taught painter of Slovak-Rusyn origin, whose paintings are equally attributed to the styles of primitivism and expressionism.Tivadar Kostka Csontváry was born into the family of a respected pharmacist. When he was 12 years old, his family moved to Serednye village (now the territory of Zakarpatya, Ukraine). Tivadar was sent to study in the city of Ungvar (now Uzhgorod) at a commercial school (he studied law and pharmacology). After graduation, he worked, like his father, as a pharmacist.He spent a significant part of his life in Uzhgorod (modern Ukraine). He created paintings and graphic works, depicting what he saw in his multiple travels. He was a patriot of national Hungarian art and relied on the traditions of the people. Paintings by Tivadar Csontváry – mostly plot paintings and portraits – are in demand to this day and are very highly valued at auctions. The largest collection has the Hungarian National Art Gallery (127 paintings) and the Museum of the artist in Pécs. Two monuments to the artist were installed in Uzhgorod, including a mini-sculpture (2016).

1853 - 1919

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A Swiss artist, sculptor, illustrator and graphic artist, who also created numerous wall paintings. He signed his paintings with the pseudonym Emil Sinclair.Cuno Amiet was born into the family of an official (state archivist) in the canton of Solothurn, where he began to take painting lessons.The artist worked in the genres of landscape and portrait. Belongs to the post-impressionist art movement, was a member of the Pont-Aven School, the Nabis group and the Vienna Secession. He was an honorary Doctor of Arts at the University of Berne, as well as an honorary member of the Solothurn Union of Artists, and since 1906 actively participated in the Art Association "The Bridge" (Germany).

1868 - 1961

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An outstanding Mexican painter, muralist, as well as a left-wing politician. Born in Guanajuato (northwest of Mexico), in a notable and well-to-do Spanish family. His mother was a Jew from among the conversion (converted to Catholicism). His twin Diego died at the age of two. The boy started drawing when he was three years old; his parents actively encouraged him. The significant periods of his career were in France and the United States. He was the most influential Mexican artist of the 20th century. His art served as the basis for the concept of public art in America, becoming a significant part of the Federal Program for the Development of National Art in the 1930s and 1940s. D. Rivera is widely known in the world as a monumental artist and as the husband of artist Frida Kahlo. Although his main legacy, no doubt, are murals there was a fairly long and noticeable cubist period in his creative career, when about 200 canvases were created.

1886 - 1957

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A Russian painter, who worked in Germany and Switzerland.Alexej was the fifth of eight children born into the family of a colonel in the Russian army. In the 1980s, he served as an officer in the imperial army. At the same time, he was a student of Ilya Repin, working in his workshop at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts.He was a founding member of the association of Munich Expressionist artists "New Art Society" (Neue Künster Vereinigung), the group "Blue Horseman" ("Der Blaue Reiter"); starting in 1925, he was a member of the Blue Four ("Die Blauen Vier") - an association that actively collaborated with German and American art galleries and art dealers.

1864 - 1941

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An Austrian painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent representatives of Expressionism.Egon's father was a railway worker. From childhood, the boy was fond of drawing, depicting railway tracks, stations and the surrounding areas of ​​his native town. In 1904, the family moved to the outskirts of Vienna, where his father soon died. After his death, his uncle, Leopold Chihachek, brought up Egon.The powerful images of Egon Schiele that destroyed the idea of ​​traditional beauty made him one of the most famous artists of the early twentieth century. In addition to the emotional portraits of stunning emotional emotion, Schiele is famous as an extraordinary person. By his extremely frank works and independent lifestyle, he challenged society and became almost as famous as his outstanding teacher Gustav Klimt. Only the tragic early death, interrupting his creative path, prevented Egon Schiele from becoming the most prominent contemporary artist and making a revolution in European art.

1890 - 1918

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An Italian painter, sculptor and graphic artist of Jewish origin, who lived and worked in France.One of the most famous masters of the early 20th century. The paintings created during the life of the artist had no success. They became extremely popular after his early departure from life and remain so now. At the “Christie's” auction in 2015, his “Reclining Nude”, created in 1917, was bought for almost $170.5 million. In art history, the understandable term “Modigliani style” is used.

1884 - 1920

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German painter and sculptor, key figure in Neo-expressionism and one of post-war Germany’s most famous artists. He is famous for using atypical materials such as straw, ash, clay, lead, wood, glass and shellac in his works. He also creates images for theaters and books.Kiefer’s style has developed under the influence of the philosophy of Kabbalah, mysticism and works of different spiritualists such as Robert Fludd. His works include symbolic elements connected with national identity, theology and mysticism.

1945

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An American painter and a major figure in the Abstract expressionist movement. Paul Jackson Pollock had a significant impact on the art of the second half of the XX century and was well known for his unique style of drip painting.From an early age, Jackson admired mysticism, especially the philosophy of Indian writer Jiddu Krishnamurti. His idea that the truth reveals itself to people only intuitively appealed to Pollock.

1912 - 1956

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German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, poet and one of the key figures in Surrealism and the Dada movement.Ernst’s father was a teacher at a school for deaf children and an amateur artist. That is why, under his guidance, Max started painting at an early age. From the outset, Max was an impressionable child and fancied going to the forest with his father. In 1906, Ernst’s younger sister was born. That same day, his beloved parrot died. The timing of these two events struck the teenager, and he decided that his small sister had taken the life of the bird. From that point on, the artist repeatedly portrayed people in the form of birds.

1891 - 1976

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Spanish painter, graphic artist, sculptor, director and writer. One of the most famous figures in Surrealism, and author of “The Persistence of Memory”, one of the most famous paintings of the 20th century.Dalí started painting at the age of four. He created his first serious work at the age of ten. It was a small impressionistic landscape, painted on a wooden board with oil paints. Henceforth, Dali spent whole days sitting in a small, specially allocated room and painting pictures. “I wanted to be given the laundry under the roof of our house. I got it and made it my own workshop, decorating it in the way I preferred,” he remembered later. Moreover, he liked to analyze the works of famous artists. He wrote and published essays about the works of Velazquez, Goya, El Greco, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.

1904 - 1989

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Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known as Le Corbusier, was a French architect, the pioneer of architectural modernism and functionalism, a representative of international architecture, an artist and a designer. He was one of the founders of Purism.Jeanneret created his first architectural project at the age of 17, under the guidance of a professional architect. It was a house for engraver Louis Fallet. As soon as the construction was completed, Jeanneret made his first educational trip to Italy and Austria-Hungary. In Italy, Austria and France he created a few new projects for local buildings. “I prefer drawing to talking. Drawing is faster, and leaves less room for lies,” he said.

1887 - 1965

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Dutch artist who practiced painting, writing, poetry and architecture. The founder and leader of “De Stijl” (“Style”), a Dutch artistic movement also known as Neoplasticism. As a poet he wrote under the pseudonym I. K. Bonset, and as a philosopher – the pseudonym Aldo Kamini.Van Doesburg was an architect by profession; he learned painting on his own. The artist created his works after long and careful calculation, using mathematical formulas. According to the theory of “Style”, compositions were to be constructed in accordance with the proportional relations between the geometric fragments that are included in their composition.

1883 - 1931

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Artist and art theoretician. He was the pioneer of geometric abstract art and the originator of the avant-garde Suprematist movement and Cubo-Futurism.Malevich created his first oil painting at the age of 16. It was named “Moonlit Night”. In his paintings, he tried to combine the principles of Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. He was also interested in aerial photography and aviation, which led him to abstractions inspired by aerial landscapes.

1878 - 1935

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An artist, sculptor and theorist of fine art, one of the central figures of Italian Futurism. Together with Gino Severini, he learned the technique of pointillism from Giacomo Balla and became one of the authors of the Futurism Manifesto in 1910.Umberto Boccioni was the most active participant and propagandist of the movement, its theorist and practitioner. Boccioni made the most significant contribution to the art as a sculptor. He was the first to create futuristic sculptures and wrote a work entitled “Technical manifesto of futuristic sculpture”.Like many of his contemporaries, the artist admired technology, speed, scientific progress and everything that represented the triumph of mankind over nature. Boccioni's works vividly demonstrate the main finds of Futurists - the image of the dynamics and construction of objects using the “line-force” and the principle of “simultaneity”, in which a moving object is presented in the form of several repeating elements of different moments of motion.Umberto Boccioni died early while serving in the army. However, despite that, his name entered the history of modern art forever. The artist’s works are considered the best examples of Italian avant-garde art, and the statue “Unique forms of continuity in space” is rightfully called one of the iconic sculptures of the twentieth century.

1882 - 1916

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Marsden Hartley (real name: Edmund Hartley) was an American artist and poet, one of the largest representatives of avant-garde in his country. Spending much of his time in Europe, the artist joined a large and influential German group called the “Blue Horseman”. He also participated in prestigious European and American exhibitions. The works of Marsden Hartley are represented in large public collections throughout America as an important and integral part of the avant-garde movement in this country.

1877 - 1943

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Major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, and founder of Cubism (together with Pablo Picasso).Braque came from a family of artisans. He grew up in Le Havre and studied as a painter and decorator, like his father and grandfather. However, he also seriously studied painting in the evenings at the School of Fine Arts. The artist’s early works were impressionistic. After viewing an exhibition of the works by Fauves in 1905, the painter adopted their style. Shiny red, white, yellow and orange colours prevailed in his works.

1882 - 1963

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Outstanding Romanian artist of German-Jewish origin, talented stage designer and one of the leading representatives of the Avant-garde movement in his country. The artist worked in the styles of Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism and Modernism. He was the founder and editor of several periodicals. Max Hermann Maxy ran a school that he founded for those expelled from the official Academy Jewish artists, as well as a Jewish theater. In the 1920s, when the wave of artistic innovations began in Romania, Maximilian Hermann was at the forefront of the rebellion against a society that had deprived them of the right to full citizenship. He investigated the newest styles of art, joined provocative modern movements, organized the work of new educational institutions and the publication of journals. After the war, the painter was appointed the director of the Romanian Museum of Art and professor of the Institute of Fine Arts named after Nikolai Grigorescu. He made a great contribution to the formation and development of Romania’s culture.

1895 - 1971

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Russian painter, writer and art theorist, one of the founders of Abstract art.Kandinsky received a basic musical and art education in Odessa, Ukraine. After that, he studied law and economics in Russia. He had been interested in painting since childhood. “Every color has its mysterious life,” he said. However, only at the age of 30 did Kandinsky seriously decide to become an artist.

1866 - 1944

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Norwegian painter, art theorist, graphic and theatre artist. One of the first representatives of Expressionism and Symbolism, and one whose work influenced modern art. In Europe, he was recognized as the creator of a new era. One of his best-known works is “The Scream” of 1893, a mysterious picture filled with horror and panic.

1863 - 1944

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Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse was a French artist, draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor. He was the leader of the Fauvism movement and is known for both his use of color and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. Apart from Fauvism, he worked in other genres such as Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and Cubism.

1869 - 1954

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André Derain was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse. Two other main styles of his work were Cubism and Neo-Classicism.

1880 - 1954

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The main representative of Abstract Expressionism, one of the creators of The color field painting. A prominent figure among the New York School painters, Mark Rothko moved through many artistic styles until he invented his own style.

1903 - 1970

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Ukrainian and American artist of Jewish descent, who was born in Belarus.

1881 - 1941

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

2002

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Mediums: oil, acrylic, canvas. Location: the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (the USA).

1987

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Mediums: oil, acrylic, canvas. Location: the Tate Modern Gallery, London (the UK).

1988

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Museum and gallery of Rufino Tamayo, Bosque de Chapultepec, Mexico City.

1978

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1944

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1940

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Mediums: bronze. Location: The Museum of the Art Institute of Chicago (the USA).

1960

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Mediums: bronze. Location: the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington (the USA).

1951

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Mediums: bronze. Location: The Tate Gallery (the UK).

1947

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Mediums: bronze. Location: The Tate Modern Gallery (the UK).

1962, cast 1965

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Mediums: sisal, hemp. Location: The Museum of Modern Art, Center of G. Pompidou, Paris (France).

1979

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Mediums: burlap, laminate, resin. Location: The Museum of Modern Art of Prague (Museum Kampa) (Czech Republic).

1970

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Mediums: вronze. Location: The Smithsonian Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (Washington, USA).

1952 - 1953

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Art Museum of Ukraine (Kyiv).

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The private collection of I. S. Dychenko (Ukraine).

1920

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Kyiv National Museum of Taras Shevchenko (Ukraine).

1926

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The private collection of I. S. Dychenko (Ukraine).

1920

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Folkwang Museum (Essen, Germany).

1917

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia.

1984

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Museum of Modern Art, Paris (France).

1908

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1911

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Mediums: tempera, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg (Russia).

1920

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1950

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection, Moscow (Russia).

1956

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Mediums: oil, canvas, bronze paint. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery (Russia).

1916

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Bashkir State Art Museum named after M. Nesterov. (Russia).

1916

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: the Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent (Belgium).

1933

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1930

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1929 - 1930

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Museum, Basel (Belgium).

1924

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1921

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Yaroslavl State Art Museum (Russia).

1985

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Yaroslavl State Art Museum (Russia).

1970

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Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: The Yaroslavl State Art Museum (Russia).

1964

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Galeev Gallery (Moscow, Russia).

1936

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Moravian Gallery Brno (Czech Republic).

1920

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Mediums: gouache on paper. Location: private collection.

1938

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1953

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Museum of Fine Arts. A. Pushkina, Moscow (Russia).

1938

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1932

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Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1912

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Location: private collection.

1910 - 1911

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Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1912

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Mediums: tempera, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1908

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1900

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Mediums: gouache, ink, pencil. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1908

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium.

1889

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels, Belgium.

1881

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Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: Poltava Art Museum named after Nikolay Yaroshenko, Ukraine.

1929

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Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: Kharkov Art Museum, Ukraine.

1928

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1920

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Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1920

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Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1910

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg (Russia).

1947

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Материалы: масло, дерево. Местонахождение: находится в Государственном Русском музее, Санкт-Петербург (Россия).

1938

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Location: Kiev National Museum of Russian Art, Ukraine.

1921

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Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1933

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Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1928

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Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1916

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: London Tate Modern Gallery (the UK).

1948

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York City (the USA).

1942

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Материалы: масло, холст. Местонахождение: находится в Лондонской галерее Тейт Модерн (Великобритания).

1935

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The London Tate Modern Gallery (the UK).

1922

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Museum of Fine Arts. Reina Sofia, Madrid (Spain).

1930

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Материалы: масло, холст. Местонахождение: находится в коллекции И. Диченка (Украина).

1930 - 1931

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Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Regional Art Museum. Vereshchagin, Mykolaiv (Ukraine).

1930

description

Mediums: watercolor, paper. Location: The National Museum of Art, Kyiv (Ukraine).

1929

description

Mediums: watercolor, paper. Location: The National Museum of Art, Kiev (Ukraine).

1929

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Museum of Art, Kiev (Ukraine).

1924

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

1932

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Contemporary Art, Center Pompidou, Paris.

1932

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Kirchner Museum, Davos, Switzerland.

1931 - 1932

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: New Gallery, Kassel, Germany.

1928

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Harvard University Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: New National Gallery, Berlin.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, USA.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Modern Art, Vienna, Austria.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany.

1926 - 1927

description

Mediums: wood. Location: Saarland Museum, Saarbruecken, Germany.

1919

description

Mediums: watercolor, gouache, pencil, paper. Location: National Gallery, Berlin, Germany.

1919

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Art Museum of Munich, Germany.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas, encaustic. Location: The Art Museum of St. Louis, USA.

1912 - 1913

description

Mediums: woodcut. Location: Yale University Art Gallery, USA.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: German National Museum, Nuremberg.

1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1975

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Gallery, London, England.

1971

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Hanover Galery, London, England.

1950

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Gallery, London, England.

1945

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Saratov State Art Museum named after A.N. Radishchev.

1915

description

Location: Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archeology, Oxford, UK.

1932

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1928

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 105 x 230 сm. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1928

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1912

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: Private collection of A. Ketikyan, Montreal, France.

1911

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan.

1910

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1910

description

Mediums: gouache, paper. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1909

description

Mediums: watercolor, paper. Location: State Art Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan.

1905

description

Mediums: gouache, paper. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1905

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

1964

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

1962

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Saratov State Art Museum, Russia.

1959

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Gallery, Prague, Czech Republic.

1940 - 1941

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Stedelijk van Abbe Museum, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

1923

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Solomon Guggenheim, New York, USA.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Museum, Basel, Switzerland.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Art Gallery, Berlin, Germany.

1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.

1901

description

Материалы: масло, холст.

1931

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: Art and memorial museum of O. Novakivsky, Lviv, Ukraine.

1933

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1923

description

Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art and memorial museum of O. Novakivsky, Lviv, Ukraine.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1911

description

Location: Lviv Art Gallery, Ukraine.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Lviv Art Gallery, Ukraine.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Gallery, London.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Birmingham Art Gallery, England.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Gallery, Leeds, UK.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Gallery, Leeds, UK.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK.

1908 - 1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archeology, Oxford, UK.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The foundation of P. Konchalovsky, Moscow.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Kursk State Picture Gallery of A. Deineka, Russia.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, wooden board. Location: Royal Gallery, Bucharest.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: This work was purchased at the exhibition for the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest. In NAMU, etudes for the picture are stored.

1905 - 1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1944

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1938

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1930

description

Location: Private collection V. Paleeva, St. Petersburg.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: Vologda Regional Art Gallery, Russia.

1925

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Saratov State Art Museum. Radishchev.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Bergen Art Museum, Norway.

1904

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Bergen Art Museum, Norway.

1900 - 1905

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Bergen Art Museum, Norway.

1895 - 1899

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Art Gallery, Athens.

1927

description

Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: The National Art Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

1972

description

Mediums: gouache, paper. Location: Meeting Tomilina-Larionova, Paris.

1934

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Center for Art and Culture Pompidou, Paris.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Belvedere Gallery, Vienna, Austria.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

1912

description

Location: private collection.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Finnish National Gallery, Helsinki.

1919

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Atheneum Art Museum, Helsinki.

1918

description

Location: Finnish National Gallery, Helsinki.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Atheneum Art Museum, Helsinki.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Museum of Hämeenlinna, Finland.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Atheneum Art Museum, Helsinki.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Atheneum Art Museum, Helsinki.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Museum of Wroclaw, Poland.

1935 - 1939

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Museum of Warsaw, Poland.

1921

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Museum of Warsaw, Poland.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1919

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest, Hungary.

1931

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Otto German, Miskolc, Hungary.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest, Hungary.

1926

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1926

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum, Poznan, Poland.

1902

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1897

description

Location: State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

1922

description

Mediums: oil, board. Location: Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany.

1907

description

Location: The Hague Municipal Museum, the Netherlands.

1906 - 1907

description

Mediums: oil, tempera, paper. Location: Art Museum of Basel, Switzerland.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, tempera, paper. Location: The collection of Ludwig Roselius, Bremen, Germany.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, tempera, canvas. Location: private collection.

1901 - 1902

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Collection of the Art Museum of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

1945

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: J. Chateaubriand Collection, Museum of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Collection of the Art Museum of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

1915 - 1916

description

Mediums: oil, gouache. Location: National Portrait Gallery, London.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Art Institute of Courtois, London.

1913 - 1916

description

Mediums: oil, wood. Location: Tate Gallery, London.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1908

description

Mediums: tempera, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1908

description

Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1907

description

Mediums: tempera, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1906

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Museum in Warsaw.

1905

description

Mediums: graphite, color pencil, paper, cardboard. Location: Luxembourg Museum, Paris.

1901 - 1902

description

Mediums: gouache, ink, cardboard. Location: Karakalpak Museum of Art, Savinsky Collection, Russia.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA.

1944

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Baltimore Art Museum, USA.

1944

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Jewish Museum, New York, USA.

1934

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.

1926

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Fine Arts of Virginia, Richmond, USA.

1922

description

Location: Gallery Athenaeum, Helsinki, Finland.

1935

description

Location: Finnish National Gallery, Helsinki, Finland.

1935

description

Location: private collection.

1925

description

Location: The Mikkeli Art Museum, Finland.

1907

description

Location: Turku Art Museum, Finland.

1906

description

Location: Gallery Athenaeum, Helsinki, Finland.

1895

description

Location: Gallery Athenaeum, Helsinki, Finland.

1891

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

1938 - 1939

description

Location: Metropolitan Museum, New York, USA.

1929

description

Mediums: cardboard, canvas. Location: Kunstmuseum, Bern, Switzerland.

1924

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris.

1922 - 1923

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris.

1920 - 1921

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museo de l'Orangerie, Paris.

1918

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Metropolitan Museum, New York, USA.

1916

description

Mediums: watercolor, paper. Location: private collection.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art-center of Francis Leman Lobar, New York, USA.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Addison Rowe Gallery, Santa Fe.

1967

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

1927

description

Location: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, USA.

1924

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

1927

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, USA.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1918

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The property of Tiziano Thomas Dossena, USA.

1980

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1976

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Royal Collection, London.

2001

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1984

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain.

1965

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Modern Gallery, London.

1952

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Modern Gallery, London.

1952

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1945

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.

1945

description

Mediums: paper, watercolor, pencil. Location: private collection.

1932

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, panel. Location: Weismann Art Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

1928 - 1929

description

Mediums: oil, panel. Location: Museum of Brooklyn, New York, USA.

1929

description

Mediums: oil, panel. Location: Weismann Art Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1944

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1937

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1937

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Carnegie Institution, Pittsburgh, USA.

1937

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1913

description

Mediums: watercolor, gouache, pastel, ink, paper. Location: private collection.

1905

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1904

description

Location: private collection.

1951

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location:Municipal Museum, The Hague, Netherlands.

1933

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: City Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1910

description

Mediums: pencil, yellow paper. Location: Art Gallery of New South Wales, Australia.

1981

description

Mediums: oil, sandpaper. Location: Art Gallery of New South Wales, Australia.

1964

description

Mediums: synthetic polymer paint, board. Location: Museum of Modernity, New York, USA.

1957

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: Art Gallery of New South Wales, Australia.

1956

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: Museum of Art Nouveau in Heide, the Gallery of A. and B. Tucker.

1945

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

1944

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

1943

description

Mediums: oil, plywood. Location: National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

1942

description

Location: Museum of Art Nouveau in Heide, Albert Gallery and Barbara Tucker.

1939

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1928

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1927

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1925

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1931

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum and sculpture garden of Hirschhorn, Washington, the USA.

1953

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Museum of Ulster, Belfast, the UK.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Modern Art Gallery, London.

1945

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Modern Art Gallery, London.

1942

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Museum of Ulster, Belfast, the UK.

1928

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Modern Art Gallery, London.

1923

description

Mediums: watercolor. Location: City Gallery of Hugh Lane, Dublin, Ireland.

1909

description

Mediums: watercolor. Location: Museum and sculpture garden of Hirschhorn, Washington, the USA.

1907 - 1910

description

Mediums: watercolor. Location: National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.

1899

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Collection S. and E. von Stiftung, Munich, Germany.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Collection B. Köhler, Berlin.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Franz Marc, Kochel am See, Bavaria.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 140 x 190 сm. Location: Museum of Solomon R. Guggenheim, New York, USA.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: : 112 x 85 сm. Location: Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1932

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Institute of Chicago, USA.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: New York Museum of Modern Art, USA.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Collection of Arts Council.

1960

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The University of Stirling.

1959

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Tate Gallery, London, UK.

1958

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1957

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts.

1953

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Southampton Art Gallery, Great Britain.

1952

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Scotland.

1942

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, panel. Dimensions: 106,5 x 76 сm. Location: private collection.

1937

description

Mediums: oil, panel. Dimensions: 51 x 40 сm. Location: private collection.

1937

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of E. Nolde, Seebühl, Germany.

1942

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Thyssen-Bornemisza National Museum, Madrid, Spain.

1936

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, USA.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Thyssen-Bornemisza National Museum, Madrid, Spain.

1927

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, Munich, Germany.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen.

1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of E. Nolde, Seebühl, Germany.

1904

description

Location: Art Institute of Chicago, USA.

1897

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 89 x 121 сm. Location: National Museum of Modern Art, Pompidou Center, Paris, France.

1926

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Gallery, Stuttgart, Germany.

1923

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Gallery of Modern Art, Torino, Italy.

1919

description

Mediums: gouache, ink, watercolor, paper. Dimensions: 63,8 x 48,1 сm. Location: Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York City, NY, US.

1922

description

Mediums: watercolor. Location: Tate Modern Gallery, London.

1922

description

Mediums: watercolor, paper, cardboard. Dimensions: 13,3 x 13,9 сm. Location: Lenbachhouse Gallery, Munich, Germany.

1910

description

Location: Art Museum of Craiova, Romania.

1940

description

Location: Romanian National Museum of Art, Bucharest.

1930

description

Location: Romanian National Museum of Art, Bucharest.

1909

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1925

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1921

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1904

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Gallery of Western Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Gallery of Western Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The National Art Gallery in Prague.

1910

description

Location: Tate Gallery, London, England.

1967

description

Location: private collection.

1960

description

Location: National Museum of Contemporary Art, Paris.

1948

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Pompidou Center of Contemporary Art, Paris.

1946

description

Location: private collection.

description

Mediums: gouache, board. Location: Private collection of Robert Funk, Miami.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Norton Hunter Gallery, West Palm Beach, USA.

1920

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Gallery of New South Wales.

1993

description

Mediums: lithography, paper. Location: Tate Gallery, London, UK.

1972

description

Mediums: oil, tempera, board. Location: Tate Gallery, London.

1960

description

Mediums: oil, tempera, board. Location: National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

1958

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: Gould Galleries in Melbourne, Australia.

1950

description

Mediums: tempera, paper, cardboard. Location: Museum of Contemporary Art, Ascona, Switzerland.

1930

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: Lentos Museum of Contemporary Art, Austria.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, cardboard. Location: Berlin Gallery, Germany.

1912

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: Leopold Hash Museum, Duren, Germany.

1910

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: The Municipal Gallery of the Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany.

1910

description

Mediums: gouache, cardboard. Location: Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany.

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: Museum of Bohuslän, Uddevalla, Sweden.

1909

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard. Location: The Murnau Castle Museum, Germany.

1908

description

Mediums: tempera, cardboard, paper. Dimensions: 56 x 73 сm. Location: M. Werefkin Foundation, Ascona, Switzerland.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1941

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium.

description

Mediums: charcoal, chalk, paper. Location: Regional Museum of Constanta Permeke, Jabbeke, Belgium.

1933

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland.

1930

description

Mediums: oil, paper, plywood. Location: Regional Museum of Constanta Permeke, Jabbeke, Belgium.

1928

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Modern Tate Gallery, London, UK.

1924 - 1925

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent, Belgium.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1905

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: T. Csontváry Museum, Petch, Hungary.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 200 x 192 сm. Location: National Art Gallery of Hungary, Budapest.

1907

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: National Art Gallery, Hungary, Budapest.

1905

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Otto Herman Museum, Miskolc, Hungary.

1902

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Museum of Argau, Switzerland.

1908

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Ludwig Museum, Cologne, Germany.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: The Städel Art Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

1913

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Ludwig Museum, Cologne, Germany.

1913

description

Location: The Städel Art Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 70 x 88 сm. Location: Private Collection Westdeuice Landesbank, Düsseldorf, Germany.

1911

description

Mediums: oil, paper. Dimensions: 50 x 39 cm. Location:Old and New National Galleries, Museum Berggruen, Berlin, Germany.

1910

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: German National Museum in Nuremberg, Germany.

1910

description

Location: Westphalian Museum of Art and Cultural History, Münster, Germany.

1909

description

Mediums: oil, wooden board. Dimensions: 41 x 32,5 сm. Location: Art Museum of Bonn, Germany.

1909

description

Location: Kunstmuseum, Bern, Switzerland.

1913

description

Location: Belvedere Gallery, Vienna, Austria.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 152 x 162,5 сm. Location: Belvedere Gallery, Vienna, Austria.

1918

description

Dimensions: 47,8 x 31,7 см. Location: private collection.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 98 x 169 сm. Location: Belvedere Gallery, Vienna, Austria.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Belvedere Gallery, Vienna, Austria.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection.

1914

description

Mediums: watercolor, paper. Location: private collection.

1914

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 398 x 322 сm. Location: Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, panel Dimensions: 32 x 40 сm. Location: Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria.

1912

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 80 x 80 сm. Location: Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria.

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 99,06 x 63,5 сm. Location: Tate Gallery, London, England.

1918

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Metropolitan Museum, New York, NY, USA.

1919

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 92 x 60 сm. Location: Museum of Contemporary Art-Center Pompidou, Paris.

1918

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 92 x 60 сm. Location: National Gallery, Washington D.C., USA.

1917

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: Art Museum, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 55,2 x 46,4 сm. Location: Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, NY, USA.

1915 - 1916

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 61 см x 52 сm. Location: Art Institute, Chicago, USA.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Location: private collection, Geneva, Switzerland.

1915

description

Mediums: oil, canvas. Dimensions: 55 x 46 сm. Location: private collection.

1908

description

Mediums: acrylic, oil, shellac, sand, canvas. Location: Essl Museum, Austria.

2009

description

Mediums: watercolor, acrylic, paper. Location: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.